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Presentation on theme: "CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, SPINAL NERVES, CRANIAL NERVES."— Presentation transcript:


2 CNS – Central Nervous System CNS – Central Nervous System

3 Spinal nerves Spinal nerves –31 pairs

4 Cranial nerves Cranial nerves –12 pairs


6 Meninges – protection of the Spinal Cord Dura Mater Dura Mater –Subdural space Arachnoid layer Arachnoid layer –Sub-arachnoid space Pia mater Pia mater

7 Protection Cerebrospinal fluid Cerebrospinal fluid

8 Protection Vertebrae of Vertebral Column Vertebrae of Vertebral Column

9 Function of Spinal cord Transport nerve impulses from senses to brain Transport nerve impulses from senses to brain Transport nerve impulses from brain to muscles or glands Transport nerve impulses from brain to muscles or glands

10 Sensory/Afferent neuron Sensory/Afferent neuron

11 Motor/Efferent neuron Motor/Efferent neuron


13 Reflex arc

14 Lumbar Puncture

15 L 3, L 4, L 5

16 Spinal Nerves 31 pairs

17 Cauda Equina Horse's tail

18 Anatomy of Spinal nerves


20 Plexuses

21 General Information Re the Brain – question C 2 2% of body weight Receives about 20% of body’s blood supply Circle of Willis – diagram text Lack of Oxygen – –1 – 2 minutes impairs neuron function – –Over 4 minutes permanent brain damage Brain stores little if any glucose Must have constant supply Lack of enough glucose –Mental confusion –Dizziness –Convulsions –Loss of consciousness

22 Pathway of CSF

23 Brain Stem

24 Pons Bridge

25 Medulla – –Pathway for all ascending and descending tracts of white matter – –Sensory and motor

26 Diencephalon Thalamus – –Sensory Hypothalamus – –Autonomic – –Pituitary gland – –Emotions – –Behavior – –Thirst/eating – –Body temp – –Circadian rhythm

27 Anatomy of Brain

28 Functions of white matter tracts in Cerebrum Associative tracts – –Nerve impulses w/in same hemisphere Commissural tracts – –NI from left to right and right to left hemispheres Projection tracts – –Cerebrum to thalamus, brain stem, spinal cord

29 Basal ganglia Deep within the Cerebrum Movement Damage to BG is Parkinson’s

30 Ventricles Cavities in Cavities in the brain that produce and contain CerebrospinalFluid Pg. 243 text

31 Limbic system Question D7 a – –Pg. 495 text “Emotional Brain” –Olfaction –Memory –Primary role in range of emotions  Pain  Pleasure  Docility  Affection  Anger

32 Functional areas of the brain

33 Cranial Nerves

34 Table E 2 Olfactory Nerve # I Function – –Sense of smell

35 Optic Nerve # II Function – –Sight – not pain or temperature of eye

36 Oculomotor Nerve # III Function – –Proprioception – –Movement of muscles in and around eye

37 Trochlear Nerve # IV Function – –Proprioception – –Movement eyelids

38 Trigeminal Nerve # V Function – –Touch, pain, temp sensations on face – –Chewing

39 Abducens Nerve # VI Function –Stimulates lateral rectus to abduct eye –Proprioception

40 Facial Nerve # VII Function –Facial expression, taste, proprioception

41 Vestibulocochlear Nerve # VII Function –Hearing, equilibrium

42 Glossopharyngeal Nerve # IX Function –Taste, swallowing, monitors O 2 and CO 2 in blood, speech

43 Vagus Nerve # X Function –Taste, swallowing, coughing, voice, organs of GI tract, HR

44 Accessory Nerve # XI Function – –Proprioception, swallowing, movement of head and shoulders

45 Hypoglossal Nerve # XII Function –Motor and sensory fibers of the muscles of tongue

46 Common Disorders Hemiplegia Monoplegia Paraplegia Quadriplegia Paralysis of arm, leg, trunk on one side of body Paralysis of one extremity only Paralysis of both legs Paralysis of both arms and legs

47 CVA or TIA CVA – –Cerebrovascular accident – –Stroke – –Occurs when blood vessel to brain is plugged or blocked by a blood clot TIA –Transient Ischemic attack –Mini-stroke –Occurs when blood supply to brain is briefly interrupted

48 Shingles Neuritis Neuralgia Encephalitis Anesthesia Analgesia


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