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Presentation on theme: "CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, SPINAL NERVES, CRANIAL NERVES"— Presentation transcript:


2 CNS – Central Nervous System

3 Spinal nerves 31 pairs

4 Cranial nerves 12 pairs


6 Meninges – protection of the Spinal Cord
Dura Mater Subdural space Arachnoid layer Sub-arachnoid space Pia mater

7 Protection Cerebrospinal fluid

8 Protection Vertebrae of Vertebral Column

9 Function of Spinal cord
Transport nerve impulses from senses to brain Transport nerve impulses from brain to muscles or glands

10 Sensory/Afferent neuron

11 Motor/Efferent neuron


13 Reflex arc

14 Lumbar Puncture

15 L 3, L 4, L 5

16 Spinal Nerves 31 pairs

17 Cauda Equina Horse's tail

18 Anatomy of Spinal nerves


20 Plexuses

21 General Information Re the Brain – question C 2
2% of body weight Receives about 20% of body’s blood supply Circle of Willis – diagram text Lack of Oxygen 1 – 2 minutes impairs neuron function Over 4 minutes permanent brain damage Brain stores little if any glucose Must have constant supply Lack of enough glucose Mental confusion Dizziness Convulsions Loss of consciousness

22 Pathway of CSF

23 Brain Stem

24 Pons Bridge

25 Medulla Medulla Pathway for all ascending and descending tracts of white matter Sensory and motor

26 Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Sensory Autonomic Pituitary gland
Emotions Behavior Thirst/eating Body temp Circadian rhythm

27 Anatomy of Brain

28 Functions of white matter tracts in Cerebrum
Associative tracts Nerve impulses w/in same hemisphere Commissural tracts NI from left to right and right to left hemispheres Projection tracts Cerebrum to thalamus, brain stem, spinal cord

29 Basal ganglia Deep within the Cerebrum Movement
Damage to BG is Parkinson’s

30 Ventricles Cavities in the brain that produce and contain
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pg. 243 text

31 Limbic system Question D7 a “Emotional Brain” Pg. 495 text Olfaction
Memory Primary role in range of emotions Pain Pleasure Docility Affection Anger

32 Functional areas of the brain

33 Cranial Nerves

34 Table E 2 Olfactory Nerve # I
Function Sense of smell

35 Optic Nerve # II Function Sight – not pain or temperature of eye

36 Oculomotor Nerve # III Function Proprioception
Movement of muscles in and around eye

37 Trochlear Nerve # IV Function Proprioception Movement eyelids

38 Trigeminal Nerve # V Function Touch, pain, temp sensations on face

39 Abducens Nerve # VI Function Stimulates lateral rectus to abduct eye

40 Facial Nerve # VII Function Facial expression, taste, proprioception

41 Vestibulocochlear Nerve # VII
Function Hearing, equilibrium

42 Glossopharyngeal Nerve # IX
Function Taste, swallowing, monitors O2 and CO2 in blood, speech

43 Vagus Nerve # X Function
Taste, swallowing, coughing, voice, organs of GI tract, HR

44 Accessory Nerve # XI Function
Proprioception, swallowing, movement of head and shoulders

45 Hypoglossal Nerve # XII
Function Motor and sensory fibers of the muscles of tongue

46 Common Disorders Hemiplegia Monoplegia Paraplegia Quadriplegia
Paralysis of arm, leg, trunk on one side of body Paralysis of one extremity only Paralysis of both legs Paralysis of both arms and legs

47 CVA or TIA CVA TIA Cerebrovascular accident Stroke
Occurs when blood vessel to brain is plugged or blocked by a blood clot TIA Transient Ischemic attack Mini-stroke Occurs when blood supply to brain is briefly interrupted

48 Shingles Neuritis Neuralgia Encephalitis Anesthesia Analgesia


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