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Temple College EMS Professions

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Presentation on theme: "Temple College EMS Professions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Temple College EMS Professions
Nervous System Temple College EMS Professions

2 Nervous System Components
Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Motor nerves Sensory nerves

3 Brain Body’s controlling organ
Responsible for organizing functions of other body organ systems

4 Brain Functions localized to specific areas Cerebrum Cerebellum

5 Center for conscious perception and response
Cerebrum Center for conscious perception and response Frontal lobe Foresight, planning, judgment Movement Parietal lobe Sensation from body surface Temporal lobe Hearing Speech Occipital lobe Vision

6 Cerebrum Left side of cerebrum Right side of cerebrum
Sensory, motor functions of body’s left side Sensory, motor functions of body’s right side

7 Cerebellum Posture Balance Equilibrium Fine motor skills

8 Brain Stem Automatic functions below level of consciousness Heart rate
Respirations Blood pressure Body temperature

9 Spinal Cord Connects brain with body
Serves as center for reflex action Surrounded, protected by spinal column Damage cuts brain off from body structures distal to injury site

10 Peripheral Nerves Brain Spinal Cord Sensory Nerves Motor Nerves

11 Autonomic Nervous System Voluntary Nervous System
Unconscious (Visceral) Functions Conscious Functions

12 Brain/Spinal Cord Enclosed in protective box Skin Muscle Bone Meninges

13 Meninges Three layers of tissue enclosing brain, spinal cord
Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater

14 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Surrounds brain, spinal cord in space between arachnoid and pia mater (subarachnoid space) Acts as a shock absorber Protects brain from jolts, shocks

15 Injuries to Scalp and Skull
Scalp Lacerations Skull Fracture

16 Scalp Lacerations VERY vascular area
Can distract EMT from possible underlying injuries Care for laceration, but ask, “WHAT HAPPENED TO BRAIN AND NECK?”

17 Scalp Lacerations Bleeding usually NOT severe enough to produce hypovolemic shock If shock present, think about other injuries Exceptions Laceration that involves a large artery Scalp injuries in children. Why?

18 Skull Fractures Injury to rigid box around brain
Indicates significant force What happened to brain and neck?

19 Types of Skull Fracture
Linear Most common Crack in skull Detected only on x-ray Comminuted Multiple cracks radiate from impact point

20 Types of Skull Fracture
Basilar Fractures in floor of skull Diagnosis made clinically Signs and symptoms Periorbial ecchymosis (Raccoon eyes) Battle’s sign CSF drainage from nose, ears Depressed Bone fragments pressed inward Places pressure on brain Brain tissue may be exposed through injury


22 Injuries to Brain

23 Concussion Temporary disturbance in brain function
Probably due to brain being “rattled” inside the skull by a blow to the head Usually confused or unconscious Retrograde amnesia--“What happened?” Effects clear without residual effects

24 Cerebral Contusion Bruising, swelling
Results from brain hitting skull’s inside Coup-contracoup pattern Since brain is in closed box, pressure increases as brain swells, blood flow to brain decreases

25 Cerebral Contusion Signs and Symptoms Personality changes
Loss of consciousness Paralysis (one-sided or total) Unequal pupils Vomiting

26 Epidural Hematoma Usually associated with skull fracture in temporal area Fracture damages artery on skull’s inside Blood collects in epidural space between skull and dura mater Since skull is closed box, intracranial pressure rises

27 Epidural Hematoma Signs and Symptoms
Loss of consciousness followed by return of consciousness (lucid interval) Headache Deterioration of consciousness Dilated pupil on side of injury Weakness, paralysis on side of body opposite injury Seizures

28 Subdural Hematoma Usually results from tearing of large veins between dura mater and arachnoid Blood accumulates more slowly than in epidural hematoma Signs and symptoms may not develop for days to weeks

29 Because of slow or delayed onset, may be mistaken for stroke
Subdural Hematoma Signs and Symptoms Deterioration of consciousness Dilated pupil on side of injury Weakness, paralysis on side of body opposite injury Seizures Because of slow or delayed onset, may be mistaken for stroke

30 Cerebral Laceration Tearing of brain tissue
Can result from penetrating or blunt injury Can cause: Massive destruction of brain tissue Bleeding into cranial cavity with increased intracranial pressure

31 Assessment of Head Injury
Early detection of increased intracranial pressure is critical If pressure inside skull exceeds average blood pressure, blood flow to brain stops Increasing intracranial pressure can force brain downward into spinal canal, crushing it

32 Assessment of Head Injury
Level of consciousness is BEST indicator of patient’s condition AVPU system Glasgow scale

33 AVPU System Alert Responds to Verbal Stimulus
Responds to Painful Stimulus Unresponsive

34 Score each response then total scores
Glasgow Scale Eye Opening Spontaneous = 4 To Voice = 3 To Pain = 2 None = 1 Verbal Response Oriented = 5 Confused = 4 Inappropriate Words = 3 Incomprehensible Sounds = 1 None = 1 Motor Response Follows Commands = 6 Localizes Pain = 5 Withdraws = 4 Flexion = 3 Extension = 2 None = 1 Score each response then total scores Maximum Score = 15 Minimum Score = 3

35 Assessment of Head Injury
Vital Signs Body responds to increasing intracranial pressure by raising BP Increased BP moves blood into brain against rising ICP Heart rate falls in response to rising BP

36 Cushing’s Triad Increased BP Slow Pulse Altered Breathing

37 Isolated head injury does not cause hypotension or tachycardia!
Vital Signs Isolated head injury does not cause hypotension or tachycardia! Signs of shock in head injured patient indicate other injuries are present!

38 Pupils Diffuse cerebral edema Dilated Equal
Sluggish or absent response

39 Dilated pupil is on SAME side as injury
Pupils Focal lesion (contusion, hematoma) Unequal Dilated pupil sluggish or fixed Dilated pupil is on SAME side as injury

40 Assessment of Head Injury
Other Indicators of Increased ICP Headache Nausea Vomiting (often projectile) Seizures

41 Management of Head Injury
ABCs with C-spine control C-collar, long board, CID Any patient with significant head injury has neck injury until proven otherwise Ensure adequate oxygenation If signs of increased ICP present, controlled hyperventilation with BVM at breaths/minute

42 Management of Head Injury
Controlled hyperventilation Lowers blood carbon dioxide levels Causes constriction of blood vessels in brain As vessels constrict brain shrinks As brain shrinks intracranial pressure drops

43 Management of Head Injury
Do NOT apply pressure to open or depressed skull fractures Do NOT attempt to stop flow of blood or CSF from nose, ears Do NOT remove penetrating objects

44 Spinal Injuries

45 Significance Spinal injury can lead to spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury can lead to: Paraplegia Quadraplegia

46 Most important spinal injury indicator…

47 Common Mechanisms Compression Flexion Extension Rotation
Lateral bending Distraction Penetration

48 Suspect spinal injury with...
Sudden decelerations (MVCs, falls) Compression injuries (diving, falls onto feet/buttocks) Significant blunt trauma above clavicles Very violent mechanisms (explosions, cave-ins, lightning strike)

49 Significant Head Injury = Neck Injury Until Proven Otherwise

50 Other indications Decreased LOC in trauma patient
Pain in spine or paraspinal area Pain in back of head, shoulders, arms, legs Absent, altered sensation (numbness, paresthesias, loss of temperature, position, touch sense) Absent, altered motor function (weakness, paralysis)

51 Other indications Diaphragmatic breathing (paralysis of chest wall)
Shock with slow heart rate and dry skin Incontinence Priapism

52 Or, there may be no signs at all. . .
Neurologic deficits are a result of cord injury Spinal injury without cord involvement may produce no significant signs and symptoms

53 Management ABCs with C-spine control
Ensure adequate oxygenation, ventilation Keep ENTIRE spine immobilized Repeatedly assess, document neurologic status: Position sense Pain Motion Repeatedly monitor respirations, blood pressure

54 Spinal Trauma Complications
Respiratory Failure Chest wall innervated from thoracic spine Diaphragm innervated from C3,4,5 via phrenic nerve Cord injury can produce paralysis of respiratory muscles, lead to ventilatory failure

55 Spinal Trauma Complications
Neurogenic Shock Damage to cord produces peripheral vasodilation Peripheral resistance to blood flow decreases, BP falls Heart rate remains normal or slows Skin below level of injury is flushed, dry

56 Spinal Trauma Complications
Hypothermia Damage to cord produces peripheral vasodilation Peripheral vasodilation causes increased heat loss through skin

57 Spinal Trauma Complications
How would you manage: Ventilatory failure caused by spinal injury? Hypoperfusion caused by spinal injury? Hypothermia caused by spinal injury?

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