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Beekeeping in Israel 2012 84,000 Hives 450 Beekeepers 6,100 Pasture & migration spots 3,200 Tons of honey 40 Kg. of honey per hive 3,600 Local consumption.

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Presentation on theme: "Beekeeping in Israel 2012 84,000 Hives 450 Beekeepers 6,100 Pasture & migration spots 3,200 Tons of honey 40 Kg. of honey per hive 3,600 Local consumption."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Beekeeping in Israel ,000 Hives 450 Beekeepers 6,100 Pasture & migration spots 3,200 Tons of honey 40 Kg. of honey per hive 3,600 Local consumption (tons) Annual turn over - 10 millions $ 60,000 Hives for pollination Income from pollination millions $ Actual value millions $ Actual value millions $ Added value millions $ Added value millions $

4 Segmentation of hives and beekeepers in Israel 2012

5 Organization of the beekeeping sector The industry is organized and administered by a number of institutions: 4 The Department of Beekeeping in the Ministry of Agriculture: Responsible for training beekeepers, helping to solve problems in the field, transmitting new research and information and participation in new field trials and development of new breeds.

6 Organization of the beekeeping sector 4 The Veterinary Services: Responsible for controlling bee diseases, bee pests, and regulations concerning the import/export bee and apiary products.

7 Organization of the beekeeping sector 4 The Triwaks Bee Research Center at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: conducts research and courses for students and beekeepers.

8 Organization of the beekeeping sector 4 The Israeli Honey Board: Responsible for the registration of beekeepers, the distribution of pastures and crops, and supervision of honey marketing channels.

9 Organization of the beekeeping sector 4 The management Council: Composed of a Representative of each of the aforementioned organizations, the council is responsible for coordinating the various activities in the branch.

10 Organization of the beekeeping sector 4 The Israeli Beekeepers Association: Represents the beekeepers, supervises the modernization of beekeeping equipment and maintains contact with beekeeping organizations around the world.

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19 מחירי הדבש בעולם CIF $ לטון 2012– 1600$ בצורות (אוסטרליה ובדרום אמריקה), שיטפונות (מרכז אירופה) ושאריות אנטיביוטיקה בדבש הסיני

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26 Honey bee worker sting and tip of a needle in a scanning electron micrograph. Mammal!

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30 גרגרי אבקת פרחים בגודל בין מיקרון

31 גרגרי אבקת פרחים על גבי זיפי רגל עמלה 30 מיקרון

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38 The honeybee as a social insect Superorganism Superorganism A Colony.A Colony. A Nest.A Nest. The individual depends on the colony.The individual depends on the colony. Female dimorphism: one queen and workers.Female dimorphism: one queen and workers. Workers-Division of labor.Workers-Division of labor. Brood & Queen tending.Brood & Queen tending. Communication.Communication. Food gathering & storage.Food gathering & storage. Homeostasis ( THERMO -REGULATION).Homeostasis ( THERMO -REGULATION). Annual life cycle.Annual life cycle.

39 Honeybee Annual life cycle in Israel Citrus blooming

40 Honey Bee colony Environment Climatic condition and weather Flora Pollination Food Pests and Predators Pests and Predators Brood diseases Brood diseases and Parasites and Parasites Noninfectious Disorders Noninfectious Disorders Poisoning and Poisoning and Abnormalities Adult diseases Adult diseases and Parasites and Parasites

41 Honeybee Adult Diseases and Parasites (Israel 2012) NOSEMA ( Protozoa ).NOSEMA ( Protozoa ). VARROA ( Mite ).VARROA ( Mite ). TRACHEAL MITE ( Mite ).TRACHEAL MITE ( Mite ). CHRONIC BEE PARALYSIS ( Virus ).CHRONIC BEE PARALYSIS ( Virus ). ACUTE BEE PARALYSIS ( Virus ).ACUTE BEE PARALYSIS ( Virus ).

42 Honeybee Brood Diseases and Parasites (Israel 2012) AMERICAN FOULBROOD ( Bacterial - Paenibcillus larvae).AMERICAN FOULBROOD ( Bacterial - Paenibcillus larvae). EUROPEAN FOULBROOD ( Bacterial - Melissococcus plutton +Streptococcus facalis & Bacillus alvei ).EUROPEAN FOULBROOD ( Bacterial - Melissococcus plutton +Streptococcus facalis & Bacillus alvei ). SACBROOD ( Virus ).SACBROOD ( Virus ). BLACK QUEEN-CELL ( Virus ).BLACK QUEEN-CELL ( Virus ). CHALK BROOD ( Fungus - Ascosphera apis ).CHALK BROOD ( Fungus - Ascosphera apis ). VARROA ( Mite - Varroa destructor ).VARROA ( Mite - Varroa destructor ).

43 ABNORMALITIES and NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES (GENETIC, CHILLING…..).ABNORMALITIES and NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES (GENETIC, CHILLING…..). POISONING (PLANTS, PESTICIDES and MEDICATION). POISONING (PLANTS, PESTICIDES and MEDICATION).

44 Honeybee Pests and Predators (Israel 2012) Wax Moths(Galleria mellonella & Achroia grisella).Wax Moths(Galleria mellonella & Achroia grisella). Wasps (Vespa orientalis).Wasps (Vespa orientalis). Birds (Merops apiater).Birds (Merops apiater). Badger (Mellivora capensis wilsoni).Badger (Mellivora capensis wilsoni). Ants (Durylus fulvuse)..Ants (Durylus fulvuse)..

45 Tropilaelaps clareae 1 מ”מ1 מ”מ Braula coeca Varroa destructor

46 Varroa Mite Varroa destructor 1.5 mm

47 Global distribution of Varroa Mites

48 Grower ”, September 1996 ” California Agriculture ”, March-April 1998 ” America ’ s Honeybees are in a bad way America ’ s Honeybees are in a bad way Associated Press ”, Jun 1996 ”

49 Tropilaelaps

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53 Global distribution of Tropilaelaps 1998

54 2. Mite enters cell with larva of days 9. Adult females leave cel with emerging bee. Male and immeture stages stay in cell. The life cyle of Varroa destuctor 1. Adalt bee, with varroa feeding on hemlymph 3. Mite in larvas food4. Mite feeds on prepupa 5. Female lays first egg 60 hours after cell capping. Female lays subsequent eggs at 30 hour intervals 10. Mites transfer through Close contact between bees eggs developing from egg to larva to protonymph to deutonymph Female deutonymph Protonymph 8. Mating within cell Adult male

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59 Bees and brood with heavy varroa infestation Post varroa syndrome (brood) Deformation of the wings

60 I.P.MI.P.M Resistance/Tolerance of honeybee coloniesResistance/Tolerance of honeybee colonies Varroa Control Chemical controlChemical control

61 Varroa control by IPM 4 Drone cells “traps”. 4 Uncapping the brood cells or removing them from the hive. 4 Treating against varroa when there is minimum brood or while requeening. 4 Heating the hive. 4 Traps on the bottom of the hive by placing sticky and/or screened board. 4 Using smaller cell foundations in the brood chamber. 4 Introducing copper (Cu).

62 Reported honeybee colonies resistance/tolerance mechanisms against varroa 4 Grooming behavior. 4 Hygienic behavior. 4 Shortened post - capping stage periods. 4 Disability of varroa female to multiply in the capped cells brood.( abortion and/or reduced fertility). 4 Weakening of attractiveness of varroa mites to brood cells. 4 Length of phoretic period.

63 Tolerance of honeybee colonies to varroa mites 4 Natural tolerance was found in a number of honeybee colonies population in Uruguay, Tunisia, Brazil, New Guinea & Argentina. 4 Selection of tolerant bees are in progress in U.S.A., Russia, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. 4 In Israel we have some encouraging results with tolerant bee strains (Buckfast from Sweden).

64 Pesticides based on natural compounds: Thymol & essential oils Thymol & essential oils: Apiguard, Thymovar and Apilifevar. Formic acid Formic acid: Api plus. Oxalic and citric acids Oxalic and citric acids. *Their efficiency in the hive is temperature dependent.

65 Synthetic pesticides 4 Pyrethroids: Fluvalinate - Apistan (Mavrik). Acrinathrin - Gabon. Flumethrin - Byvarol. 4 Amitraz: Apivar and by Tak-tic fumigation. 4 Organophosphate: Coumaphos - CheckMite+ and Perezin. Malathion - Mixed with sugar powder or flour.

66 Honeybee and varroa Annual life cycles in Israel, timing of treatments *One hour after fumigation with amitraz on the sticky bottom board. 6 weeks

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