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Chapter 13 – The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 For Every Action… Action… Reaction…

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 – The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 For Every Action… Action… Reaction…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 – The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 For Every Action… Action… Reaction… Make a Note of This Cord Lack of Communication Are You Nervous? FINAL ROUND

2 For Every Action…: $100 Question What is the minimum number of neurons in a reflex arc? a. One b. Two c. Five d. Seven BACK TO GAME ANSWER

3 For Every Action…: $100 Answer What is the minimum number of neurons in a reflex arc? a. One b. Two c. Five d. Seven BACK TO GAME

4 For Every Action…: $200 Question Which of these is NOT an important factor concerning reflexes? a. They are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. b. They preserve homeostasis by making rapid adjustments in the functions of organs. c. They oppose potentially harmful changes in the internal or external environment. d. They involve interaction with the cerebrum. BACK TO GAME ANSWER

5 For Every Action…: $200 Answer Which of these is NOT an important factor concerning reflexes? a. They are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. b. They preserve homeostasis by making rapid adjustments in the functions of organs. c. They oppose potentially harmful changes in the internal or external environment. d. They involve interaction with the cerebrum. BACK TO GAME

6 For Every Action…: $300 Question One of the first somatic reflexes to develop is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex is this? a. Inherent reflex b. Acquired reflex c. Innate reflex d. Visceral reflex BACK TO GAME ANSWER

7 For Every Action…: $300 Answer One of the first somatic reflexes to develop is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex is this? a. Inherent reflex b. Acquired reflex c. Innate reflex d. Visceral reflex BACK TO GAME

8 For Every Action…: $400 Question Polysynaptic reflexes include all of he following characteristics, except ___? a. Involve pools of interneurons b. Interneuron pools are contained within one spinal segment c. Have reverberating circuits d. Involve reciprocal inhibition BACK TO GAME ANSWER

9 For Every Action…: $400 Answer Polysynaptic reflexes include all of he following characteristics, except ___? a. Involve pools of interneurons b. Interneuron pools are contained within one spinal segment c. Have reverberating circuits d. Involve reciprocal inhibition BACK TO GAME

10 For Every Action…: $500 Question What is reinforcement as it pertains to spinal reflexes? a. It allows brief periods of rest between sets of stimuli b. A chronic depression in spinal reflexes due to IPSPs c. An enhancement of spinal reflexes due to postsynaptic neurons entering a state of facilitation d. Strengthening of both the crossed extensor reflex and reciprocal inhibition BACK TO GAME ANSWER

11 For Every Action…: $500 Answer What is reinforcement as it pertains to spinal reflexes? a. It allows brief periods of rest between sets of stimuli b. A chronic depression in spinal reflexes due to IPSPs c. An enhancement of spinal reflexes due to postsynaptic neurons entering a state of facilitation d. Strengthening of both the crossed extensor reflex and reciprocal inhibition BACK TO GAME

12 Action… Reaction…: $100 Question You’ve just touched a hot stove. What type of reflex did you experience __ and in what way was your brain involved in the reflex __? a. Cranial / the somatosensory cortex b. Visceral / only tracts that respond to pain c. Complex / all the sensory tracts d. Spinal / it was not involved at all BACK TO GAME ANSWER

13 Action…Reaction…: $100 Answer You’ve just touched a hot stove. What type of reflex did you experience __ and in what way was your brain involved in the reflex __? a. Cranial / the somatosensory cortex b. Visceral / only tracts that respond to pain c. Complex / all the sensory tracts d. Spinal / it was not involved at all BACK TO GAME

14 Action…Reaction…: $200 Question A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell. Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his muscles appear to relax and he drops the barbell. Which reflex has occurred? a. Withdrawal reflex b. Stretch reflex c. Crossed extensor reflex d. Tendon reflex BACK TO GAME ANSWER

15 Action…Reaction…: $200 Answer A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell. Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his muscles appear to relax and he drops the barbell. Which reflex has occurred? a. Withdrawal reflex b. Stretch reflex c. Crossed extensor reflex d. Tendon reflex BACK TO GAME

16 Action…Reaction…: $300 Question During a withdrawal reflex, what happens to the limb on the side opposite the stimulus? What is the response called? a. Flexed / stretch reflex b. Adducted / tendon reflex c. Extended / crossed extensor reflex d. Abducted / tendon reflex BACK TO GAME ANSWER

17 Action…Reaction…: $300 Answer During a withdrawal reflex, what happens to the limb on the side opposite the stimulus? What is the response called? a. Flexed / stretch reflex b. Adducted / tendon reflex c. Extended / crossed extensor reflex d. Abducted / tendon reflex BACK TO GAME

18 Action…Reaction…: $400 Question How would the stimulation of the muscle spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk) reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the speed of the reflex? a. Quicker reflex response b. Slower reflex response c. Graded reflex response d. Inhibited reflex response BACK TO GAME ANSWER

19 Action…Reaction…: $400 Answer How would the stimulation of the muscle spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk) reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the speed of the reflex? a. Quicker reflex response b. Slower reflex response c. Graded reflex response d. Inhibited reflex response BACK TO GAME

20 Action…Reaction…: $500 Question Reflex responses usually remove or oppose the stimulus. Therefore this type of reflexive response would be considered an example of ___. a. A visceral reflex b. Negative feedback c. A reverberation circuit d. Avoidance feedback BACK TO GAME ANSWER

21 Action…Reaction…: $500 Answer Reflex responses usually remove or oppose the stimulus. Therefore this type of reflexive response would be considered an example of ___. a. A visceral reflex b. Negative feedback c. A reverberation circuit d. Avoidance feedback BACK TO GAME

22 Make a Note of This Cord: $100 Question Damage to which root of a spinal nerve would interfere with motor function? a. Posterior root b. Anterior root c. Dorsal root d. Ventral root BACK TO GAME ANSWER

23 Make a Note of This Cord: $100 Answer Damage to which root of a spinal nerve would interfere with motor function? a. Posterior root b. Anterior root c. Dorsal root d. Ventral root BACK TO GAME

24 Make a Note of This Cord: $200 Question Where is the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the spinal cord located? a. Epidural space b. Subarachnoid space c. Above the dura mater d. Between the pia mater and the nervous tissue of the brain BACK TO GAME ANSWER

25 Make a Note of This Cord: $200 Answer Where is the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the spinal cord located? a. Epidural space b. Subarachnoid space c. Above the dura mater d. Between the pia mater and the nervous tissue of the brain BACK TO GAME

26 Make a Note of This Cord: $300 Question Which of following is true concerning the spinal cord ? a. The filum terminale is the end of the spinal cord. b. The conus medullaris is a strand of fibrous tissue that helps support the spinal cord. c. The spinal cord of an adult ends between L 1 and L 2. d. The amount of gray matter in the spinal cord is the least at the cervical and lumber enlargements. BACK TO GAME ANSWER

27 Make a Note of This Cord: $300 Answer Which of following is true concerning the spinal cord ? a. The filum terminale is the end of the spinal cord. b. The conus medullaris is a strand of fibrous tissue that helps support the spinal cord. c. The spinal cord of an adult ends between L 1 and L 2. d. The amount of gray matter in the spinal cord is the least at the cervical and lumber enlargements. BACK TO GAME

28 Make a Note of This Cord: $400 Question A person with polio has lost the use of his leg muscles. In which area of his spinal cord would you expect the virus-infected motor neurons to be? a. Anterior gray horns b. Lateral gray horns c. Posterior gray commissure d. Anterior gray white commissure BACK TO GAME ANSWER

29 Make a Note of This Cord: $400 Answer A person with polio has lost the use of his leg muscles. In which area of his spinal cord would you expect the virus-infected motor neurons to be? a. Anterior gray horns b. Lateral gray horns c. Posterior gray commissure d. Anterior gray white commissure BACK TO GAME

30 Make a Note of This Cord: $500 Question Which portion of the spinal cord would be affected by a disease that damages myelin sheaths? a. Sulci b. Columns c. Gray horns d. Fissures BACK TO GAME ANSWER

31 Make a Note of This Cord: $500 Answer Which portion of the spinal cord would be affected by a disease that damages myelin sheaths? a. Sulci b. Columns c. Gray horns d. Fissures BACK TO GAME

32 Lack of Communication: $100 Question A patient has damage to several spinal nerves. Which of the major divisions of the nervous system has been damaged? a. Central nervous system b. Peripheral nervous system c. Autonomic nervous system d. All of these are correct. BACK TO GAME ANSWER

33 Lack of Communication: $100 Answer A patient has damage to several spinal nerves. Which of the major divisions of the nervous system has been damaged? a. Central nervous system b. Peripheral nervous system c. Autonomic nervous system d. All of these are correct. BACK TO GAME

34 Lack of Communication: $200 Question If a patient has persistent numbness in the medial two fingers, which nerve of the brachial plexus has been damaged? a. Ulnar nerve b. Median nerve c. Radial nerve d. Musculocutaneous nerve BACK TO GAME ANSWER

35 Lack of Communication: $200 Answer If a patient has persistent numbness in the medial two fingers, which nerve of the brachial plexus has been damaged? a. Ulnar nerve b. Median nerve c. Radial nerve d. Musculocutaneous nerve BACK TO GAME

36 Lack of Communication: $300 Question Compression of which nerve produces the sensation that your leg has “fallen asleep”? a. Sural nerve b. Sciatic nerve c. Femoral nerve d. Tibial nerve BACK TO GAME ANSWER

37 Lack of Communication: $300 Answer Compression of which nerve produces the sensation that your leg has “fallen asleep”? a. Sural nerve b. Sciatic nerve c. Femoral nerve d. Tibial nerve BACK TO GAME

38 Lack of Communication: $400 Question Damage to the long thoracic nerve would cause paralysis to which muscle(s)? a. Deltoid and teres minor muscles b. Rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles c. Latissimus dorsi muscle d. Serratus anterior muscle BACK TO GAME ANSWER

39 Lack of Communication: $400 Answer Damage to the long thoracic nerve would cause paralysis to which muscle(s)? a. Deltoid and teres minor muscles b. Rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles c. Latissimus dorsi muscle d. Serratus anterior muscle BACK TO GAME

40 Lack of Communication: $500 Question Someone with paralysis of the anterior thigh muscle would have damage at which spinal segments? a. L 4 – S 4 b. T 12 – L 1 c. L 2 – L 4 d. L 4 – S 2 BACK TO GAME ANSWER

41 Lack of Communication: $500 Answer Someone with paralysis of the anterior thigh muscle would have damage at which spinal segments? a. L 4 – S 4 b. T 12 – L 1 c. L 2 – L 4 d. L 4 – S 2 BACK TO GAME

42 Are You Nervous?: $100 Question Why are spinal nerves classified as “mixed” nerves? a. They contain both afferent and efferent fibers b. They contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons c. They carry mixed or conflicting information d. Axons of the ventral root carry sensory information to the spinal cord and axons of the dorsal root control somatic and visceral effectors BACK TO GAME ANSWER

43 Are You Nervous?: $100 Answer Why are spinal nerves classified as “mixed” nerves? a. They contain both afferent and efferent fibers b. They contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons c. They carry mixed or conflicting information d. Axons of the ventral root carry sensory information to the spinal cord and axons of the dorsal root control somatic and visceral effectors BACK TO GAME

44 Are You Nervous?: $200 Question What is the clinical significance of dermatomes? a. Damage to descending tracts will be reflected in the dermatomes. b. Location of affected dermatomes provides clues to location of injury along the spinal cord. c. Damage to a corresponding spinal nerve will produce loss of sensation to the region of skin supplied by a dermatome. d. B and C are correct. BACK TO GAME ANSWER

45 Are You Nervous?: $200 Answer What is the clinical significance of dermatomes? a. Damage to descending tracts will be reflected in the dermatomes. b. Location of affected dermatomes provides clues to location of injury along the spinal cord. c. Damage to a corresponding spinal nerve will produce loss of sensation to the region of skin supplied by a dermatome. d. B and C are correct. BACK TO GAME

46 Are You Nervous?: $300 Question Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with the ability to breathe __? Which nerve is the major nerve of this plexus? a. Brachial plexus / long thoracic nerve b. Cervical plexus / phrenic nerve c. Cervical plexus / long thoracic nerve d. Brachial plexus / pectoral nerve BACK TO GAME ANSWER

47 Are You Nervous?: $300 Answer Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with the ability to breathe __? Which nerve is the major nerve of this plexus? a. Brachial plexus / long thoracic nerve b. Cervical plexus / phrenic nerve c. Cervical plexus / long thoracic nerve d. Brachial plexus / pectoral nerve BACK TO GAME

48 Are You Nervous?: $400 Question An anesthetic blocks the function of the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. Which areas of the body will be affected? a. Skin and muscles of the back of the neck b. Skin and muscles of the shoulders c. Both A and B d. None of the above BACK TO GAME ANSWER

49 Are You Nervous?: $400 Answer An anesthetic blocks the function of the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. Which areas of the body will be affected? a. Skin and muscles of the back of the neck b. Skin and muscles of the shoulders c. Both A and B d. None of the above BACK TO GAME

50 Are You Nervous?: $500 Question After injuring her back, Tina exhibits a positive Babinski reflex. What does this imply about Tina’s injury? a. Possible paraplegia b. Possible damage of sensory tracts to foot c. Possible damage of ascending tracts in spinal cord d. Possible damage of descending tracts in the spinal cord BACK TO GAME ANSWER

51 Are You Nervous?: $500 Answer After injuring her back, Tina exhibits a positive Babinski reflex. What does this imply about Tina’s injury? a. Possible paraplegia b. Possible damage of sensory tracts to foot c. Possible damage of ascending tracts in spinal cord d. Possible damage of descending tracts in the spinal cord BACK TO GAME

52 FINAL ROUND Question Which is the term used when one presynaptic neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons __? When is this useful ___? a. Parallel processing / when information must be relayed in a stepwise fashion b. Convergence / when a signal must be concentrated c. Divergence / when broad distribution of a specific input is important d. All of these are correct. BACK TO GAME ANSWER

53 FINAL ROUND Answer Which is the term used when one presynaptic neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons __? When is this useful ___? a. Parallel processing / when information must be relayed in a stepwise fashion b. Convergence / when a signal must be concentrated c. Divergence / when broad distribution of a specific input is important d. All of these are correct. BACK TO GAME


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