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1 FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS IS PSYCHOANALYSIS REALLY THAT INFLUENCIAL? MAJOR INFLUENCES ON FREUD’S THINKING KEY NOTIONS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINISM.

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Presentation on theme: "1 FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS IS PSYCHOANALYSIS REALLY THAT INFLUENCIAL? MAJOR INFLUENCES ON FREUD’S THINKING KEY NOTIONS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINISM."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS IS PSYCHOANALYSIS REALLY THAT INFLUENCIAL? MAJOR INFLUENCES ON FREUD’S THINKING KEY NOTIONS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINISM CONFLICT UNCONSCIOUS PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY ID, EGO, SUPEREGO ANXIETY & DEFENSE MECHANISMS

3 2 PSYCHOANALYSIS = the single most influential school of thought of the XX century

4 3 Surrealism -- Salvador Dali ( ) PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE ARTS

5 4 Buñuel ( ) --Un Chien Andalou A man. A woman. A knife. An eye. A moon. A cloud. The man slices open the woman's eye as a cloud slices across the moon.

6 5 PSYCHOANALYSIS AND LITERATURE Broken Glass by (UM alumnus) Arthur Miller Set in 1938, during the rise of Nazism and government-sanctified anti- Semitism, a Brooklyn couple are forced to deal with the wife's psychosomatic paralysis. This affliction could exist for many disparate reasons, such as the couple's bitter marriage, her husband's futile attempted assimilation into the Gentile world, her obsession with Hitler's assault on German Jews, or just as a plea for attention. It is up to the couple's doctor to discover the root of this illness.

7 6 Question for the class: In your view, why were Freud’s ideas and psychoanalysis so shocking to society?

8 7 Freud’s view of the human psyche as ridden by unconscious and uncontrollable forces of sexual origin.

9 8 MAJOR INFLUENCES ON FREUD’S THINKING: 3 historical phenomena 2 relationships

10 9 ROMANTICISM Celebration of the emotional and irrational aspects of human nature Delacroix ( )

11 10 RATIONALISM & EMPIRICISM Providing a scientific account for all phenomena Ramon y Cajal ( )

12 11 RATIONALISM & EMPIRICISM Providing a scientific account for all phenomena e.g., providing a scientific explanation for hysteria? (paralysis with no apparent physical cause) FREUD’S MECHANISTIC VIEW OF THE MIND mind = machine that uses psychological energy; this energy can only be displaced or transformed (never destroyed)

13 12 WW1 Self-destruction as part of human nature

14 13 CHARCOT ( ) Hypnosis as a research method and therapeutic tool Hysteria: paralysis with no apparent physical cause

15 14 BREUER ( ) Talking-cure: unstructured talk about fantasies, dreams, symptoms, fears ---> release of psychic energy

16 15 KEY NOTIONS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINISM CONFLICT UNCONSCIOUS

17 16 There is not such thing as random behavior; all our acts are determined by internal forces (wishes, fears) related to two basic instincts INSTINCTS: LIFE (libido) & DEATH (aggression) Mental representation of a biological need; Energy of the psyche MENTAL ENERGY Biological need  Increase in  Psychological need  Socially acceptable (e.g., sex) tension/arousal -INSTINCT- expression (e.g., sexual dream) PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINISM

18 17 CONFLICT Our lives are a constant negotiation of opposing impulses (desire/fear; love/hate) Such conflicts produce anxiety (realistic, neurotic, moral)

19 18 TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL OF THE MIND UNCONSCIOUS

20 19 FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Personality development is very much influenced by sexual development STAGES: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital (see textbook for this topic)

21 20 STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY Different personalities result from the different interactions among these structures (which compete with each other for the psych energy available).

22 21 Question for the class: Main difference between Ego and Superego?

23 22 Ego: guided by reality, postpones but does not prohibit (is pragmatic, rational) Superego: guided by morality, inhibits (is moralistic, perfectionist)

24 23 TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL OF THE MIND TOPOGRAPHICAL MODEL OF THE MIND

25 24 ANXIETY & DEFENSE MECHANISMS

26 25 EGO’S DEFENSE MECHANISMS ‘it’ = ANXIETY PROVOKING, UNACCEPTABLE THOUGHT OR IMPULSE DENIAL: refusal to acknowledge its existence REPRESSION: pushing it out of awareness

27 26 EGO’S DEFENSE MECHANISMS ‘it’ = ANXIETY PROVOKING, UNACCEPTABLE THOUGHT OR IMPULSE DENIAL: refusal to acknowledge its existence REPRESSION: pushing it out of awareness PROJECTION: attributing it to someone else REACTION FORMATION: overemphasizing its opposite REGRESSION: retreating to an earlier (immature) stage of development IDENTIFICATION: identifying oneself with a feared person RATIONALIZATION: giving excuses for it INTELLECTUALIZATION: distancing oneself from it by ‘studying it’

28 27 EGO’S DEFENSE MECHANISMS ‘it’ = ANXIETY PROVOKING, UNACCEPTABLE THOUGHT OR IMPULSE DENIAL: refusal to acknowledge its existence REPRESSION: pushing it out of awareness PROJECTION: attributing it to someone else REACTION FORMATION: overemphasizing its opposite REGRESSION: retreating to an earlier (immature) stage of development IDENTIFICATION: identifying oneself with a feared person RATIONALIZATION: giving excuses for it INTELLECTUALIZATION: distancing oneself from it by ‘studying it’ DISPLACEMENT: shifting it to a nonthreating, neutral object SUBLIMATION: displacement that is productive, socially useful

29 28 POSSIBLE TOPIC FOR EXTRA-CREDIT PAPER Modern and empirical work on Ego’s functioning: EGO-CONTROL & EGO-RESILIENCE Jack & Jeanne Block (1980)

30 29 CLASSIFICATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISMS Hysteria grouping Obsessive grouping (Table 3.3 in the textbook)


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