Presentation on theme: "Oculomotor nerve lesion"— Presentation transcript:
1Oculomotor nerve lesion Lesion results in:Lateral squint & Diplopia (eye deviated laterally by the action of unopposed lateral rectus)Ptosis (drooping of upper eye lid) due to paralysis of levator palpebrae superioris.Proptosis (forwards bulging of eye ball) due to relation of paralysis of extrinsic eye muscle.
2Pupil dilatation & loss of light reflex due to paralysis of constrictor pupillae. Loss of accommodation (& convergence) reflex due to paralysis of ciliary muscle.- Impaired downward & outward movement of the eye ball on the damaged side. The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers run superficially in the nerve and are therefore the first axons to suffer when a nerve is affected by external pressure. Consequently, the first sign of compression of the occulomotor nerve is ipsilateral slowness of the pupillary response to light.
3Trochlear nerve lesion Isolated trochlear nerve injury is rare.Lesion results in diplopia & inability to rotate the eye infero-laterally due to paralysis of the superior oblique muscle of the same side.The eye deviates; upward and slightly inward.Person has difficulty in walking downstairs.If you asking the patient to look downwardstowards the opposite side of the lesionLeads to diploplia.
5Abducent nerve palsy Lesion results in: Isolated abducent nerve injury is rare Isolated abducent nerve leads to medial squint with an inability to direct the affected eye laterally (due to unopposed action of the medial rectus) A nuclear lesion may also involve the nearby nucleus or axons of the facial nerve, causing paralysis of all the ipsilateral facial muscles.
6Trigeminal nerve lesion Complete injury of the trigeminal nerve1- Paralysis of the ipsilateral muscles of mastication & other muscles supplied by mandibular nerve.2- Loss of sensation on the ipsilateral ½ of the face except the area over lateral ½ of the mandible . There is also unilateral loss of sensation of the anterior ½ of the scalp. Cornea, conjunctiva, mucosa of themouth & anterior 2/3 of the tongue.TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIAInflammatory condition affecting one or more of the three divisions of trigeminal nerve. It is characterized by recurring of episodes of intense stabbing pain, radiating from angle of jaw along a branch of trigeminal nerve. Usually involves maxillary & mandibular nerves, sparing the ophthalmic division.
7Facial nerve injuries Upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion of facial nerve: result from lesion of the pyramid tract abovethe level of facial nucleus (supranuclearlesion)It commonly occurs with capsular hemiplegia,There is hemiplegia accompanied by paralysisof lower ½ of the face of the opposite sideof the capsular lesion.The upper part of the face is not affectedasIt recieves corticobulbar from bothsides.
9While the lower ½ of facial nucleus receives corticobulbar pyramid fibers only from the opposite side.II- Lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion of facial nerve (Clinically called Bell s palsy):results from affection of the facial nucleus & facial nerve fibers. Manifested by Complete Paralysis of the facial muscles of the side of lesion.If the injury is proximal to geniculate ganglion: there is also loss of secrtion from lacrimal, nasal, buccal, sunmandibular & sublingual glands in addition to loss of taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue on the affected side.
10There is hyperacusis (increase sound perception ) due to paralysis of the stapedius muscle. If the injury is distal to the geniculate ganglion & above the origin of chorda tympani, glands will not affected.
11BELL’S (FACIAL) PALSYLesion of facial nerve (below sytlomastoid foramen) results in paralysis of muscles of facial expression. It is of the lower motor neuron lesion type (whole face, at same side of lesion, is affected).Distortion of face : sagging of angle of mouth, dribbling of saliva, loss of facial expressions, loss of chewing, blowing, sucking, unable to show teeth or close eye.Bell’s Palsy
12Vestibular nerve lesion: leads to: 1- Vertigo: in the form of subjective feeling of rotaion of the individual or his surroundings.2- Nystagmus: in the form of oscillating jerk movements of the eyes.3- Nausea & vomiting.Cochlear nerve lesion:1- complete loss of hearing of the same side of the lesion.
13Lesion of glossopharyngeal nerve Isolated injury of the glossopharyngeal is rare. But its lesion result in loss of taste & general sensations from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue (corresponding side), anaesthesia of the pharynx , partial dryness of the mouth & loss of carotid sinus reflex.Vagus Nerve LesionUnilateral Injury of the vagus nerve at the base of the skull result in paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx, palate & larynx on the same side, this leads to:1- Dysphagis Hoarseness of the voice3- Loss of pharyngeal reflexes on the affected side & uvula deviation to the healthy side (palatal paralysis).Bilateral vagus injury at the base of the skull may be fatal as they lead to bilateral paralysis of the all laryngeal muscles lead to asphyxia unless emergency tracheostomy is done. Loss of vagal tone lead to tachycardia, dyspnea & loss of respiratory reflexes .
14Lesion of spinal part of accessory nerve results into: Difficulty in swallowing and speechInability to turn the head and raise the shoulderWinging of scapula
15Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve Injury of the nerve & its nucleus (LMN paralysis) leads to paralysis of all the muscles of the tongue on the same side.The paralyzed tongue atrophy of the muscles & becomes shrunken and furrowed of its mucosa on the affected side2- Difficulty in chewing and speechUnilateral lesion; the protruded tongue deviates to theaffected side.Bilateral lesion; the person can’t protrude the tongue.
191. Right-sided circumferential blindness due to retrobulbar neuritis. 2. Total blindness of the right eye due to lesionof right optic nerve.3. Right nasal hemianopia due to partial lesionof right optic chiasm.4. Bitemporal hemianopia due to a completelesion of the optic chiasm.5. Left temporal and right nasal hemianopiasdue to a lesion of the right optic tract.6. Left temporal and right nasal hemianopiadue to a lesion of the right optic radiation.7. Left temporal and right nasal hemianopia dueto a lesion of the right visual cortex.