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KINEGRAF Project financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland from funds on science in years 2009 – 2011 as development project Software producer and distributor: Research and Training Centre of Polish Forensic Association www.kryminalistyka.pl The Polish ForensicAssociation University of Warsaw Project financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland from funds on science in years 2009 – 2011 as development project Programme Guide Authors of software: Andrzej Łuszczuk M.Sc. Krystyn Łuszczuk M.Sc. Eng. Scientific consultation: Prof.Tadeusz Tomaszewski Dr Mieczysław Goc English version: Agnieszka Łukomska (M.A.)

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System and equipment requirements: TO ENSURE PROPER RUNNING OF PROGRAMME THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS SHOULD BE MET: 2. IMPORTANT: required monitor (display) resolution 1024 × 600 or higher. In lower resolution, the programme cannot be started. In lower resolution, the programme cannot be started. 3. Recommended default font size "9" at 96 dpi (not more than 120 dpi). 4. In Windows „.NET Framework" platform in v.2.0.50727 or more recent version should be installed. It is necessary for proper running of the programe. should be installed. It is necessary for proper running of the programe. 1.Operating system: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 or Windows 8.

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In KINEGRAF programme the so-called Kinetic and Geometric Similarity Index Kinetic and Geometric Similarity Index was applied for handwriting examination. Andrzej Łuszczuk is the author of this examination method In KINEGRAF programme the so-called Kinetic and Geometric Similarity Index Kinetic and Geometric Similarity Index was applied for handwriting examination. Andrzej Łuszczuk is the author of this examination method

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If a graphical line is solid, it is recommended to designate beginning point of next element in ending point of preceding element First click – starting point Second click – ending point and line between starting and ending points Third click – „deflection” point. The distance between this point and the line which links starting and ending points serves to determine whether a marked element is straight or arched. 1 2 3231 2 3 1 In KGSI method, it has been accepted that a graphical line of handwriting constitutes of straight and arched elements. Every element is marked by three clicks: In KGSI method, it has been accepted that a graphical line of handwriting constitutes of straight and arched elements. Every element is marked by three clicks:

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If deflection „u” is smaller than or equals „g” ( u ≤ g) the element is considered as straight. If deflection „u” is bigger than thickness „g” (u > g) the element is considered as arched. If deflection „u” is smaller than or equals „g” ( u ≤ g) the element is considered as straight. If deflection „u” is bigger than thickness „g” (u > g) the element is considered as arched. Starting point marked by expert Ending point marked by expert „Deflection” point marked by expert and line between starting and ending points Principle of classifying a graphical element as being straight or arched Thickness of graphical line (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 mm), chosen by expert. If not selected, a default thickness of g = 1,5 mm applies. Thickness of graphical line (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 mm), chosen by expert. If not selected, a default thickness of g = 1,5 mm applies. „g” Let us enlarge a yellow fragment „d” Point of „deflection” of graphical element. It should be designated by expert in the middle of line thickness. There is a possibility of selection of „d” diameter of that point ( 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 14 px). A default setting d = 8px is recommended. Point of „deflection” of graphical element. It should be designated by expert in the middle of line thickness. There is a possibility of selection of „d” diameter of that point ( 4; 6; 8; 10; 12; 14 px). A default setting d = 8px is recommended. „u” „Deflection” of graphical element, i.e. distance between the centre of deflection point and line which links starting and ending points.”Deflection” is calculated by computer with use of special formula.

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Arched element – straight element Straight element is a graphical line fragment, whose „deflection” (convexity or concavity) along the entire line is smaller than or equals the thickness of this line Arched element is a graphical line fragment, whose „deflection” is bigger than the thicknessof this line Arched element is a graphical line fragment, whose „deflection” is bigger than the thicknessof this line As in handwriting examination one may encounter specimens of various line thickness, the programme provides the possibility of defining (selecting) thickness for each specimen individually by an expert, and also the decision whether the programme classifies a given graphical element as being straight or arched.

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It has been accepted in KGSI method that infinite number of possible directions of writing of graphical elements in the process of writing can be reduced down to 10 basic ones by selecting : 8 – directions of writing of straight elements, 2 – directions of writing of arched elements. Basing on many years’ graphological practice, it has been concluded that the frequence of occurence of these directions is variable. Some of them appear more often, whereas the others less frequenlty. To systemise frequence of of occurence, directions of writing were attributed increasing values from 0.1 to 1.0 range, while observing the rule that the most often a given direction occurs, the lower its numerical representation.

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Pictogram Point value Angular range of writing directions of straight elements [in degrees] 0,1 260 – 280 80 – 100 0,2 10 – 80 0,3 190 – 260 0,4 280 – 350 0,5 Arched elements written counterclockwise 0,7 Arched elements written clockwise 0,8 100 – 170 0,6 350 – 10 0,9 170 – 190 1,0 Principles of attributing point value to directions of writing of graphical elements (straight elements of low point value occur more frequently ) 350 0 10 0 80 0 100 0 170 0 190 0 280 0 260 0 0 90 0 180 0 270 0

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Ana lysis of specimens in KGSI method involves designation of straight and arched elements on graphical elements of these specimens. Total point (numerical) value of graphical element is the sum of values „for direction” and „for length”. Total point (numerical) value of graphical element is the sum of values „for direction” and „for length”. At the same time, computer calculates the length of designated element and attributes, basing on empirical algorithm, point (numerical) value „ for length ” is attributed. The number is contained between 0. 0000 and 0. 0999 range. After designation of each element (t hird click ), computer determines its direction by highlighting one of the following buttons with relevant pictogram representing direction of writing. This also means that the element is attributed point (numerical) value „ for direction ”.

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40 mm Example of score: Straight, 40 mm long element drawn in the direction indicated with red arrow, is given the following score value: 0,3 „for direction” 40 x 0,0016 = 0,064 „for lenght” ================================== Total 0,3 + 0,064 = 0,364 Straight, 40 mm long element drawn in the direction indicated with red arrow, is given the following score value: 0,3 „for direction” 40 x 0,0016 = 0,064 „for lenght” ================================== Total 0,3 + 0,064 = 0,364 c=12 mm h=6 mm Leng th of arched element of „opening” c=12mm and "deflection" h=6mm is calculated according to the formula: The element drawn in the direction indicated with red arrow is 18.33 mm long and given the following score value: 0,8 "for direction" 18,33 x 0,0016 = 0,029 "for leng th " ================================== Total 0,8 + 0,029 = 0,829 Leng th of arched element of „opening” c=12mm and "deflection" h=6mm is calculated according to the formula: The element drawn in the direction indicated with red arrow is 18.33 mm long and given the following score value: 0,8 "for direction" 18,33 x 0,0016 = 0,029 "for leng th " ================================== Total 0,8 + 0,029 = 0,829 I.N.Bronsztejn, K.A. Siemiendiajew, MATEMATYKA Poradnik encyklopedyczny, Wydanie XX, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN Warszawa 2004, strona 216 I.N.Bronsztejn, K.A. Siemiendiajew, MATEMATYKA Poradnik encyklopedyczny, Wydanie XX, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN Warszawa 2004, strona 216

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Marking KGSI in programme KINEGRAF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1- arc 2-arc 3-line 4-arc 5-arc 6-arc 7-arc 8-arc 9-line 10-arc 1.In the same way, straight and arched elements on graphical elements are designated. 2.These elements are attributed point values according to the principle described on previous slides. 3.Basing on these values, the computer finds in specimens the number of common elements Ncom (i.e. the ones which have similar writing directions, and whose difference in scoring "for length" is lower than 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% depending on verification level) and defines the number of all elements subject to examination Nall. Kinetic and Geometric Similarity Index KGSI = 100 * Ncom / Nall [%]

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1 - line 2 - arc 3 - line 4 - arc 5 - arc 6 - line 7 - arc 8 - arc 9 - line 10 - arc 11 - line 12 - arc 13 - arc 14 - arc Designating straight and arched elements on grahical line of signature 1. In this example, 14 elements have been designated (5 straight and 9 arched elements) alongside the entire signature graphical line. 2. This is not prerequisite. The expert decides on selection of the entire graphical line, its fragment(s) or a single letter for the analysis. 3. The only prerequisite is to designate no less than 5 elements. An attempt to calculate KGSI when this requirement has not been met, will generate an error message. 1. In this example, 14 elements have been designated (5 straight and 9 arched elements) alongside the entire signature graphical line. 2. This is not prerequisite. The expert decides on selection of the entire graphical line, its fragment(s) or a single letter for the analysis. 3. The only prerequisite is to designate no less than 5 elements. An attempt to calculate KGSI when this requirement has not been met, will generate an error message.

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In paralell to calculating KGSI index, the so-called identification value coefficients designated as Wi are calculated for examined specimens. Wi connects the number of directions of writing L found in the specimen and made by a writer with a total number of elements in specimen (signature) subject to examination Nall. Wi coefficient is calculated according to the empirical formula: where : Wi Wi – identification coefficient, Nall Nall – number of all graphical elements in specimen subject to examination, 11 11 – fixed value (ma x. number of writing direction escalated with 1) L L – number of writing directions found in examined specimen. where : Wi Wi – identification coefficient, Nall Nall – number of all graphical elements in specimen subject to examination, 11 11 – fixed value (ma x. number of writing direction escalated with 1) L L – number of writing directions found in examined specimen. Specimen identification coefficient Wi in programme KINEGRAF Ma thematical value of Wi coefficient provides for substantial usefulness of a specimen as regards verification and comparison. The higher number of writing directions in a specimen, the higher value of this coefficient, and hence – higher identification value of the specimen. If, during the analysis, in both specimens THE SAME number of graphical elements Nall was found, then the specimen of higher Wi value is of higher identification value. If, in examined specimens, DIFFERENT numbers of graphical elements Nall were found, then Wi values should be interpreted for each specimen individually and they should not be compared with each other. Wi = Nall/(11- L)

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Examples of graphic al lines and coefficients Wi Nall = 1 L = 1 Nall = 6 L = 2 Nall = 6 L = 6

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Interpre tation of Wi identification value coefficient To determine whether specimens for which Wi coefficients have been determined, are of the sufficient verification value, the term of a critical coefficient of identification value Wikr was introduced by accepting empirically that the specimen of sufficient (satisfactory) identification value should contain at least 3 writing directions Lkr = 3. Hence, for each specimen, in each analysis computer determines critical coefficients according to the formula: In the next step, comparison between real values of Wi coefficients found in a given analysis and Wikr critical values takes place. In the next step, comparison between real values of Wi coefficients found in a given analysis and Wikr critical values takes place. In case of the following relation : Wi >= Wikr - specimen is of sufficient verification value In case of the following relation : Wi >= Wikr - specimen is of sufficient verification value Opposite relation : Wi < Wikr - means insufficient verification value of the specimen, the result of analysis of such specimen can be burdened with a serious error. Change of specimen is recommended. Change of specimen is recommended. Opposite relation : Wi < Wikr - means insufficient verification value of the specimen, the result of analysis of such specimen can be burdened with a serious error. Change of specimen is recommended. Change of specimen is recommended. Wikr = Nall/(11 – Lkr)

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Notes on programme application : 1.Highest Wi values may be obtained only when Nall ≥10 ( then theoretically all writing directions L=10 may occur). directions L=10 may occur). 2.Recommended number of graphical elements designated in the analysis should be therefore equal or higher than 10 in each text specimen. be therefore equal or higher than 10 in each text specimen. 3. KINEGRAF programme admits the minimum number of Nall=5 to enable the examination of very short specimens, such as initials. the examination of very short specimens, such as initials. 4. Higher threshold of Nall can theoretically be any number. In the programme it has been limited to Nall=100 for practical reasons (better legibility). it has been limited to Nall=100 for practical reasons (better legibility).

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Basic principles of verification of handwriting specimens in KINEGRAF KINEGRAF is a measuring tool, which examines geometrical shape of specimens. It does not account for other features (such as tremor, points of stoppage, shading distribution) which may appear in examined specimens and be in conflict with high geometrical similarity. (such as tremor, points of stoppage, shading distribution) which may appear in examined specimens and be in conflict with high geometrical similarity. PROGRAMME IS A MEASURING TOOL AND DOES NOT INTEND TO SUBSTITUTE THE EXPERT A final decision on match of examined entries belongs to the user !!! KINEGRAF is a measuring tool, which examines geometrical shape of specimens. It does not account for other features (such as tremor, points of stoppage, shading distribution) which may appear in examined specimens and be in conflict with high geometrical similarity. (such as tremor, points of stoppage, shading distribution) which may appear in examined specimens and be in conflict with high geometrical similarity. PROGRAMME IS A MEASURING TOOL AND DOES NOT INTEND TO SUBSTITUTE THE EXPERT A final decision on match of examined entries belongs to the user !!!

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KINEGRAF KINEGRAF KINEGRAF allows for evaluation of similarity between handwriting specimens basing on : - value of kinetic and geometrical similarity index KGSI - value of kinetic and geometrical similarity index KGSI - identification value of examined specimens KINEGRAF allows for evaluation of similarity between handwriting specimens basing on : - value of kinetic and geometrical similarity index KGSI - value of kinetic and geometrical similarity index KGSI - identification value of examined specimens Level of measurement accuracy is determined by expert who accepts admissible percentage range to contain differences between examined specimens (5%; 10%;15% i 20%) (5%; 10%;15% i 20%) Level of measurement accuracy is determined by expert who accepts admissible percentage range to contain differences between examined specimens (5%; 10%;15% i 20%) (5%; 10%;15% i 20%)

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The choice of line thickness, i.e. the "deflection" of graphical element criterion, allows for determining whether the element is arched or straight. This enables the specimens of different line thickness to be compared. Pi ctograms defining writing directions of graphical lines KINEGRAF – programme interface

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KINEGRAF – handwriting elements after analysis Results of measurements of graphical elements of signatures, as designated by expert

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Graphic al results Numerical results KINEGRAF – graphical and numerical results of analysis

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