Presentation on theme: "NASA Swift Mission Video Animations of Gama Ray Bursters (GRB) & 'Death Star' Galaxy Sources:"— Presentation transcript:
NASA Swift Mission Video Animations of Gama Ray Bursters (GRB) & 'Death Star' Galaxy Sources: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/swift_multimedia.html http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/07_releases/press_121707.html The videos are not embedded in the Blackboard slides. Clinking on the images in the slides will load them in a browser per links above.
The Farthest GRB as of 09.19.08 A Source: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts /farthest_grb.html http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts /farthest_grb.html GRB 080913 exploded Sept.13, 2008, at a whopping distance of 12.8 billion light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. The box indicates the sky area shown in the Swift image that will follow.
The Farthest GRB as of 09.19.08 B This image of the preceding boxed area merges the view through Swift's UltraViolet and Optical Telescope, which shows bright stars, and its X- ray Telescope, which captures the burst (central orange and yellow).
The Farthest GRB as of 09.19.08 C GRB 080913 can't be seen in one of a ground based telescope’s optical filters (top), but appears in another (bottom). The sudden appearance of objects at longer wavelengths indicates great distance.
Models of GRB Creation The next three slides contain links to video animations of three different theoretical models for how the supernovas come to be that produce the gamma ray bursts detected by the NASA Swift Spacecraft Gamma Ray Telescope.
BLACK HOLES - A "COLLAPSAR" ANIMATION - Click on the image for 69479main_collapsar.mpg to view the animation (5.4 MB) Image/animation above: The collapse of the core of a massive star to form a black hole is one of the possible causes of a GRB. Hundreds of thousands to a million years prior to the explosion, this very massive star started running out of fuel and let loose much of its outer envelope, or lost the envelope to a companion star. The star then rapidly depleted its remaining central fuel causing the core to lose radiation pressure and collapse. Surrounded by a disk of accreting matter, a black hole formed inside. Within a few seconds, streaming particle jets were launched along the rotation axis. The jets, combined with vigorous winds of newly formed radioactive metals blowing off the disk inside, shattered the star. The jet passed through the outer shells of the star and combined with the vigorous winds of newly forged radioactive metals blowing off the disk inside, gave rise to the supernova event. Collisions among the pieces of the jet moving at different velocities, far from the explosion and moving close to light speed, created the GRB, which can only be seen if the jet was pointed at us. What is amazing is that the engine that made the jets that created the gamma ray burst, was no larger than the Washington D.C. area.
SUPERNOVA "CLASSIC" ANIMATION - Click on the image for 69478main_classic_supernova.mpg to view the animation (6.3 MB) Image/animation above: A common supernova explosion occurs when there is no longer enough fuel to maintain the fusion process in the core of a massive star. As it begins to burn faster, it quickly depletes its hydrogen and swells into a red super-giant. The core, however, continues shrinking and, when it contains just iron, the fusion ceases to give any more energy. In less than a second, the core implodes, crushing iron atoms together while the temperature rises to over 100 billion degrees. The internal pressure, plus neutrines emitted during the formation of the neutron star, overcomes the force of gravity causing gas to shoot out from the heart of the star in an explosive shock wave. When the shock encounters the material in the star's outer layers, they are heated and propelled into space producing the brilliant display of light called a supernova."
DEVOUR THY NEIGHBOR ANIMATION - Click on the image 69476main_binary_merger.mpg to view the animation (2.7 MB) Image/animation above: Another idea for the origin of a GRB is called the Binary Merger Theory. It begins with two neutron stars, or a neutron star and a black hole orbiting each other. The gravitational wave energy emitted by these two gigantic stellar objects causes them to swirl around each other faster and faster, like two boxers in a ring preparing for the first punch. They begin to look misshaped, becoming more oblong the closer they get to one another. The final merger occurs quickly. A black hole is formed and gamma rays shoot out as a GRB.
'Death Star' Galaxy Black Hole Fires at Neighboring Galaxy A powerful jet from a super massive black hole is blasting a nearby galaxy, according to new findings from NASA observatories. This never-before witnessed galactic violence may have a profound effect on planets in the jet's path and trigger a burst of star formation in its destructive wake Known as 3C321, the system contains two galaxies in orbit around each other. Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory show both galaxies contain super massive black holes at their centers, but the larger galaxy has a jet emanating from the vicinity of its black hole. The smaller galaxy apparently has swung clockwise into the path of this jet. http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/07_releases/press_121707.html
X-RAY & RADIO WIDE FIELD X-ray & Radio Full Field Image of 3C321 A wide-field view of X-ray and radio emission, the image reveals jets that extend for about 1.7 million light years before zooming into the central two galaxies that are about 1.4 billion light years from Earth.
Multipanel Image of 3C321 A powerful jet from a supermassive black hole is blasting a nearby galaxy in the system known as 3C321, according to new results from NASA. This galactic violence, never seen before, could have a profound effect on any planets in the path of the jet and trigger a burst of star formation in the wake of its destruction.
Composite Image of 3C321 This composite image of the radio galaxy 3C321 shows the jet from a black hole at the center of the larger galaxy, to the lower left, striking the edge of a companion galaxy to the upper right, the first time such an interaction has been found. The image includes X-ray data from Chandra (colored purple), optical and ultraviolet (UV) data from Hubble (red and orange), and radio emission from the Very Large Array (VLA) and MERLIN (blue). A bright, blue spot in the VLA and MERLIN radio image shows where the jet has struck the side of the galaxy and dissipates some energy. The jet is disrupted and deflected by this impact with the companion galaxy.
Chandra X-ray Image of 3C321 The Chandra X-ray image of 3C321 shows that both galaxies contain supermassive black holes undergoing a phase of rapid growth. It is unusual for two such active galaxies to be so close to each other. Hot gas in the galaxies is also visible in the image.
VLA/MERLIN Radio Image of 3C321 A bright spot in the VLA and MERLIN radio image shows where the jet from the larger galaxy in 3C321 has struck the side of its companion galaxy - about 20,000 light years away - dissipating some of its energy. The jet is then disrupted and deflected, much like how a stream of water from a hose will splay out after hitting a wall at an angle.
Hubble Optical Image of 3C321 This optical image from Hubble shows the glow from stars in the two galaxies in 3C321. A dust-lane is visible in the larger galaxy, showing that there must have been a merger with a smaller galaxy in the past.
Hubble UV Image of 3C321 This ultraviolet image from Hubble shows large quantities of warm and hot gas in the vicinity of the galaxies in 3C321, indicating that the supermassive black holes in both galaxies have had a violent past.
Comparison of 3C321 Composite to Artist's Illustration This images compares the composite image of 3C321 to an artist's illustration of the system, showing the main galaxy and the companion galaxy. A jet of particles generated by a supermassive black hole at the center of the main galaxy is striking the companion galaxy. The jet is disrupted and deflected by this impact. The key features of this system are labeled in the final view.
Animation of 3C321 This animation of 3C321 will open in a browser window. It begins with a close-up of the supermassive black hole in the center of the main galaxy. Hot gas is falling towards the black hole via a blue disk. Some of this material is swallowed by the black hole, but much of it is ejected in a narrow jet of particles traveling at almost the speed of light. The camera then pulls back to show stars and a dust lane in the main galaxy. As the field of view continues to increase in size, the companion galaxy becomes visible as it swings into the path of the jet from the main galaxy. The jet is deflected and disrupted by the impact with the companion galaxy. [Runtime: 0:46]animation of 3C321