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Robot Workshop NATIONAL ELECTRONICS MUSEUM Dan Zeitlin “Mr. Z” April 11, 2015 Robot Workshop 2015 a.

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Presentation on theme: "Robot Workshop NATIONAL ELECTRONICS MUSEUM Dan Zeitlin “Mr. Z” April 11, 2015 Robot Workshop 2015 a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Robot Workshop NATIONAL ELECTRONICS MUSEUM Dan Zeitlin “Mr. Z” April 11, 2015 Robot Workshop 2015 a

2 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.2 Agenda A little about robots A little about robots Today’s Bot – NEMBot 4 Today’s Bot – NEMBot 4 Application Program (“App”) Application Program (“App”) Putting NEMBot 4 together Putting NEMBot 4 together Soldering Soldering Alignment and Operation Alignment and Operation What we’re doing today Robot Workshop a - p.2

3 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.3  “A robot is a machine that performs one or more tasks.”  There are two basic types:  Non-Autonomous - use or require human intervention  Autonomous - run without human intervention  Smart Modify their behavior in response to their environment Vary from not-so-smart to brilliant  Not-smart (‘dumb’) Perform preprogrammed tasks without regard to environment Tasks can be one or more, simple or very complex   What’s a Robot?, but they all perform tasks Robots There are different types of robots

4 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.4 Robot Parts  Physical robots use motions to perform their tasks  Manipulation - Handle tools or other objects Bionic motions - emulate living joint and limb movements Machine motions – radar antenna, crane, welder....  Transportation motions - Move through environments  Motors provide the means of motion  Linear - Move in a straight line, usually with limited range  Rotary – Turn either through angle or continuously  Specialized Actuators – Latch or other discrete motion  Robots have some means of control  Vary from simple switches to complex computer controls ility  Computer programs or applications provide the most flexibility  Specialized microcontrollers are popular for robot control  Robots need power sources  Fossil or synthetic fuel, chemical batteries, solar energy... Robots need a means of motion and a way to control it

5 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.5 NEMBot 4 The NEMBot 4 has all the parts a smart robot needs ULTRASONIC SENSOR MOTORS BATTERIES MICROCONTROLLER BOARD BALL (under side)

6 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.6  Standard Servos  Rotate to a commanded position and stop  Used for angular motion over a limited range  Sense their position and compare to command position  Used for steering, scanning, joints, manipulators …  Continuous Rotation Servos  Turn continuously like a “normal” motors do, no position sensing  Used for propulsion, winding reels, etc  Forward or reverse, sometimes speed controlled  NEMBot 4 uses continuous rotation servos  Can go clockwise or counter-clockwise  One speed only (not controlled) Servo Motors (Servos) NEMBot 4 uses continuous rotation servo motors for propulsion

7 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.7  PIC stands for “Peripheral Interface Controller”  NEMBot uses a Picaxe ® educational microcontroller  Other popular hobby PICs include the Arduino and BASIC STAMP  All PICs have  Memory space to store a program (EPROM)  Memory space to store data (RAM)  Built-in interfaces to read and control various devices  Their own language and instruction set  Programming tools, usually free  NEMBot’s Picaxe ® is programmed to control the Bot  The Bot follows a series of programmed command steps  Each step represents something to do ion...Check sensor, command servo, make decision... Microcontroller Program (App) A programmed PIC tells the Bot’s servos how to move

8 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.8  HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor  The Transmit Transducer sends out a burst of ultrasonic waves (“pings”)  The Receive Transducer detects the waves reflected from the target  NEMBot’s application program measures the time from “ping” to receive and decides when the target is close enough to avoid.  Ultrasonic waves cannot be heard by human ear  Some surfaces absorb sound waves and may be “stealthy” to ultrasound Ultrasonic Sensor NEMBot 4’s sensor send out ultrasonic waves and senses reflections Detection Distance Distance is proportional to half round trip time

9 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.9 NEMBot 4 Application Program The program checks the sensor for reflections and runs the servos NEMBot 4 moves forwards. If the sensor detects an obstruction close ahead, the Bot backs up, turns left, and tries moving forward again. noyes set servos not to turn set servos not to turn initialize wait 5 seconds alignment bit set? alignment yes hear a reflection in less than “x” less than “x”milliSec? hear a reflection in less than “x” less than “x”milliSec? tell servos to move straight ahead tell servos to move straight ahead forward motion avoidance action tell servos tell servos to turn left to turn left tell servos tell servos to move to move backwards backwards tell sensor to ping tell sensor to ping no

10 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.10 Summary Robots are machines that do tasks  Can be autonomous or not, ‘dumb’ or ‘smart.’ Robot movements are driven by servos, motors, and actuators  Controls vary from simple to complicated  Robots often use specialized PIC Microcontroller computer chips NEMBot 4  Continuous rotation servos drive the wheels  A PICaxe ® microcontroller runs the control program  Motion depends on environment – is there an obstruction?  Program can be modified with a PC and free Editor software (you’ll need a programming cable) Robots have common types of elements, so does NEMBot 4

11 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.11 NEMBot 4 Construction Steps Detailed circuit board and final assembly instructions are included in separate documents: General soldering instructions Picaxe ® proto PC board instructions (you will complete the board) PC board Jumper wire instructions Final assembly instructions

12 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.12  Use the instruction in the board package for locations  Insert and solder the parts in this order:  (2) Resistors Bend leads down to fit into board  (1) Square Capacitor  (6) Added Jumper Wires Don’t let them touch each other  (1) Cylindrical Capacitor - Be sure to honor the ”+” and ”-” lead markings  (1) LED (red) - Be sure to put the long and short leads in the correct holes An Integrated Circuit (IC) socket, programming connector, 3 headers and 2 short jumpers have been pre-installed.  Insert IC (chip) after re-checking parts and soldering Assemble and Solder the Board Follow the Proto Board instruction sheet

13 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.13 Adding jumper wires to the board   Use solid bare (un-insulated) #24 wire   Run wires along top of board   Put ends through indicated holes, solder, and trim   Count holes to make sure of ends points   Be sure wires are not touching when you are done   There are a total of eight jumper wires It is easiest to insert one end of a jumper wire and solder it first. Then you are free to shape and run the jumper to its other end before inserting and soldering it. Exact shape is not important. Ends points and not touching are! sensor and servo motor headers +-+- Vcc Trig Echo Rtn +-+- red LED long lead is + electrolytic capacitor long lead is +

14 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.14   Solder bonds metal together   Usually copper wire and copper Pads or terminals   Metal must be hot enough to melt solder to make it “stick”   Always heat the metals and let them melt the solder   Simply melting the solder alone makes a poor “cold joint” A Word about Soldering Soldering temperatures are over 700 degrees F!  Be Careful  Only touch the soldering iron insulated handle  Never set the iron down anywhere but in its holder  Wires will get hot. Hold them with a tool or not at all. Electronic parts are connected using solder

15 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.15 Download the App & Check Operation  Download the application program to your Bot  The program in the Bot first checks for “alignment” mode  “loop while” is set to =1 to indicate alignment mode  Servos are commanded not to move (servo command is “150”)  Use this mode to align servos or check experimental sensors  Set the program to run mode  Use the Editor to change “loop while” to 0 (zero) for run mode  Download the program to your Bot  Run your bot and put your hand in front of it  The Bot should back up and turn, then try to go forward again  The Bot will keep trying and backing as long as it sees an obstruction Note: The sensor has a Beamwidth that is like a wedge. It gets wider with distance from the sensor. See if your Bot runs correctly

16 Robot Workshop 2015 a - p.16 More...  Expand NEMBot 4  Add functions, like searching with the SR04  Add sensors, such as Infrared (IR) and Acoustic...  New robot projects  Resources  - and previous workshop reference files  – Program Editor, cable driver, and programming info  - ideas and help  – *servos, accessories, and robot parts  – servos, accessories, and robot parts  – servos, accessories, and robot parts   www. – servos and electronics parts  - ideas and general info projects using other microcontrollers (PICs) can be adapted Workshop materials form a basis for more projects... Perhaps attend another NEM workshop

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