Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Stephen Taylor"— Presentation transcript:
1 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Stephen Taylor Image: 'Melts In Your Hand' Found on flickrcc.netStephen Taylor
2 Assessment Statements Obj. 3.2.1Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.23.2.2Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.3.2.3List three examples each of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fructose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose, sucrose), and polysaccharides (glycogen, cellulose, starch).13.2.4State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.3.2.5Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between:monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharidesfatty acids, glycerol and triglyceridesamino acids and polypeptides3.2.6State three functions of lipids, including energy storage and thermal insulation (also: protection, membranes, buoyancy, neuron insulation).3.2.7Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storageenergy storage per gram (kJ/g)fast/slow release of energydemand for oxygen & ease of release of energy3Command terms:Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject Guide
3 Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things. They usually contain C-H or C-C bonds.The organic compounds we study can be used in metabolic reactions.
5 Carboxylic Acid Group (-COOH) A generalized amino acidThe basic structure of the amino acids is common. There are 22 different protein-making amino acids, though only 20 are coded for in genetic code. Each has its own unique R-group. Some are polar, others non-polar and their different properties determine their interactions and the shape of the final protein.Amino Group (-NH2)Carboxylic Acid Group (-COOH)The amino group is one of the reasons why nitrogen is an important element in living things.The carboxylic acid group contains an oxygen double-bonded to the carbon and a hydroxyl group (-OH) that can be lost to form new bonds.
6 Methionine: an amino acid Methionine is an important amino acid as it is coded by the START codon in mRNA (AUG). This means that is is the first amino acid in all polypeptide chains as it is the first produced in transcription in the ribosomes.Although methionine (Met) has quite a large R-group, we can still identify the amino group and carboxylic acid group on the amino acid.Sulphur forms strong bonds (disulphide bridges) with other S-containing amino acids.The simplest amino acid is glycine, with H in the R-group position.
7 Glucose General formula: C6H12O6 This is the basic mono-saccharide (single-unit) hexose (6-carbon) sugar molecule that is used in respiration. It is a chemical store of energy.General formula: C6H12O6We count the carbons in clockwise direction, starting with the first carbon after the oxygen atom in the ring.
8 Ribose General formula: C5H10O5 This is the basic mono-saccharide (single-unit) pentose (5-carbon) sugar molecule. It is found in RNA and a similar version in DNA.General formula: C5H10O5We count the carbons in clockwise direction, starting with the first carbon after the oxygen atom in the ring.
9 Fatty Acids & GlycerolFatty acid chains can be of many lengths, extended by adding CH2 units. They are an efficient store of energy and bond with glycerol (a simple sugar alcohol) to make triglycerides – lipids.
20 State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.Glucose is used in cell respiration to produce ATP for use in energy processed in cells.Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + water
21 Glycogen is an insoluble storage molecule in the liver. When blood glucose is high, thepancreas releases insulin, telling theliver to capture blood glucose andcombine molecules of glucose tomake the polysaccharide glycogen,through condensation reactions.This stores energy for later.When blood glucose drops,the hormone glucagon causesthe glycogen to be broken down(hydrolysis reactions) to glucose andthen released back into the blood.blood glucose too highblood glucose too lowLiver from:
22 Lactose Lactose is a disaccharide produced in mammal mothers. It consists of glucose and galactose and is easily digested by the lactase enzyme in the young animal’s digestive system.By producing a small disaccharide that can be broken down by lactase, the mother can provide her young with a source of energy that can be quickly digested after feeding and then readily used in respiration.Breastfeeding logo from:
23 Condensation reactions make bonds. Hydrolysis bonds break these bonds. Watch these three animations and make ageneralisation about the processes:function, roles of enzymes, roles of water
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