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Published byGeorge Fletcher Modified about 1 year ago

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Bohr Model (Shell Model) Evidence suggested electrons occupied specific energy levels (shells) while “orbiting” around nucleus Essentially based on Coulomb’s Law k = coulomb’s constant q = object with a charge r = radius (distance between the 2 charged particles) Was used to help explain why electrons didn’t come “crashing” into the nucleus (since opposites attract) Attractive force between nucleus and electron is balanced by electron’s centrifugal force The Bohr model makes great predictions BUT there’s a couple things about electrons we discovered: Uncertainty Electron spin

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Uncertainty: - Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle We can never know BOTH the: Location of an electron Momentum of an electron Because of this, we realized that electrons live in these “clouds” of probability Don’t follow specific orbits Orbital Where electrons spend their time Electrons have a Spin Clockwise or counter-clockwise magnetic spin As a result of this electron spin: Only two (max) electrons can exist in an orbital This forced us to modify our “shell” (Bohr) model in order to better align with the evidence of reality Quantum mechanical model of the atom Computers allowed us to complete complex equations and software to predict how atoms are going to interact

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Orbitals s orbital p orbitals d orbitals f orbitals ALL of these orbitals simply represent “clouds” of probability where electrons sit

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Quantum Numbers Size (n) Size of the orbital As n gets larger then the area in which the electron occupies gets larger as well Shape (l) Shape of the orbital Can be either an s, p, d, f Orientation (m l ) Tells us the number of orientations the orbitals can have s 1 orientation p 3 orientations d 5 orientations f 7 orientations Spin (ms) Clockwise (+1/2) Counter-clockwise (-1/2) Dictates that only 2 electrons can exist in an orbital These numbers allow us to predict WHERE electrons are most likely to be found which allows us to predict: What an atom looks like How atoms are going to interact

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Electron Configuration Distribution of electrons Where the electrons are found in atoms OR in ions Ionization energy Amount of energy it takes to remove an electron Can be quantified using Coulomb’s Law Multielectron atoms or ions Shells, subshells, and orbitals similar ionization energy NucleusCore electronsValence electrons shield

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Atomic number hydrogen Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number helium Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number lithium Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number beryllium Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number boron Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number carbon Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number nitrogen Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number oxygen Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number fluorine Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number neon Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number sodium Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Atomic number magnesium Each box represents and orbital Each arrow represents an electron

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Periodicity 1s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d 7s7p hydrogen 1s 1

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Periodicity 1s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d 7s7p boron 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1

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Periodicity 1s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d 7s7p neon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6

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Periodicity 1s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d 7s7p sodium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1

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Periodicity 1s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d 7s7p chromium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 4 [Ar]4s 2 3d 4 Same thing

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