Presentation on theme: "➔ To produce self-generated decentralised energy by using simple mechanical principles. ➔ To provide a better and convenient environment for future generations."— Presentation transcript:
➔ To produce self-generated decentralised energy by using simple mechanical principles. ➔ To provide a better and convenient environment for future generations in Malaysia. ➔ To create a power generating system that can be implemented throughout the country.
The idea behind the concept is to generate energy through the turning of a small generator attached to a system of rotating cogs or wheels. The action of the weight being pulled down by gravity will turn the pinion/cogs/wheel which are attached which in turn drives the generator. This concept can allow for a clean, reliable and renewable energy for powering items in our typical homes. Gear system concept System model
Reasons of choosing this idea: ● Make electricity possible for everyone (includes people living in rural areas where electricity is scarce). ● Provides alternatives and renewable energy for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. ● Can function at anytime, anywhere in the world. Where to use it? Homes (Urban and rural areas) Commercial (eg. washroom) Industrial (Machine powering) Car (Smartphone charging) How to use it? Assemble the system after purchasing it, all you need is just a pull to make it works!
M Switch to unlock the locking mechanism Spring Locking mechanism Rack & Pinion mechanism Mass, M Rotatable shaft (to hit switch) Mass, M starts falling Rack (Gear bar) is pulled downwards Pinion (circular gear) rotates clockwise with locking mechanism slowing down the motion & limiting the speed of rotation The spring is pulled downwards due to rotation of the gear Energy in the body of falling mass, E1 = (mass)*(gravitational acceleration)*(height) Energy stored in spring, E2 = 0.5*(spring constant)*(length of extension of spring) 2 E1 decreases due to reducing height, while E2 increases due to increasing length of extension of spring MWhen the gear rotated 90°, rotatable shaft hit the switch and unlock the locking mechanism The locking mechanism is unlocked, and the motion of the gear is now not restricted by the lock. Note that the locking mechanism is unlocked M The gear experiences angular acceleration as the mass continues to pull the rack downwards. Although the energies at both sides are now equal, the linear momentum due to the falling motion of the mass causes the mass to continue to fall. At one point, the elastic potential energy stored in the spring. E2 is equals to the potential energy possessed by the mass, E1. E2 continues to increase while E1 is decreased. When the falling mass loses its linear momentum, the spring contracts, making the gear to rotates counter- clockwise. M The gear continues to rotate in counter- clockwise direction until the spring loses most of its elastic potential energy and the mass regains its potential energy. The switch returns to its original position and at the same time the locking mechanism is put in place again to restrict the rotating motion of the gear. The mass will then start to fall again and the whole process will be repeated. -----NOTE----- The process will stop when the system loses all its energy due to friction and air resistance. When the system stops, what you need is just a pull to returns the mass to its original position. ***NOTE : Watch in slide show for animation
Types of gearing systems used Converts linear motion to rotational motion and vice versa Transfer or increase rotational speed of smaller gear using difference in number of teeth and gear radius Change the rotational input speed to a different output speed
Circuit diagram High Speed Gear Generator Sensor (Detect direction of rotation of gear) - Output : Logic high (1) for clockwise, Logic low (0) for counter-clockwise Transistor 1 Transistor 3 Transistor 2 Battery Load Output will be sent to 3 transistors (acting as switches) When the sensor sensed that the gear is rotating clockwise, it will send a logic high output to the transistors, the circuit at transistors 1, 2 and 3 will be closed so the current will flow from generator to the battery and load. When the sensor sensed that the gear is rotating counter-clockwise, it will send a logic low output to the transistors, the circuit at transistors 1 and 3 will be opened and transistor 2 will be closed, so the current will flow from battery to the load.
MaterialPropertiesReasonQuantity Cost (RM) Gear systemHigh efficiencyNo loss of energy1200 Wall ClockCheapN/A110 Copper Wires Highest electrical conductivity rating of all non-precious metals High efficiency and affordable3m4 Generator20kw low rpm alternator Suitable for residential areas (can be modified for industrial usage ) 1570 DC battery Able to supply 240V, 1kW of power N/A1190 Springk=300N/mRefer to calculation156 Steel WeightBased on specified massRefer to calculation 5 kg50 Hanger & PlasticsStrongAble to withstand weight of system150 Transistors Able to operate at 240Volts, 1 kW without overheating N/A320 SensorHigh sensitivityDetect direction of rotation of pinion1250 TOTAL (For Home Usage 20kW Power Output)1400
Taking mass, M = 5kg; Radius of pinion, R = 0.25m; Perpendicular distance of spring’s attached point on the pinion to centre of pinion, R s = 0.23m When M = 5kg, weight of object, W = mg = 5kg(9.81m/s 2 ) = 49.05N Taking moment at centre of pinion, F1(0.25) = F2(0.23) For the mass to drop, initially F1 > F2, (49.05)(0.25) > (kx)(0.23) ; Taking spring constant, k = 300 N/m Length of extension of spring, x < 0.178m (initial extension) As x increases as M drops, when x > 0.178m, the force of the spring will exceed the mass, causing the gear to rotates in counter-clockwise direction. Taking efficiency of induction generator used, η as 70% Input Power needed = 20kW / 0.7 Input Power needed = 28.57 kW When shaft torque, T = 180 N·m, Speed of rotation needed to produce 20kW of output, N = 25.26 rev/sec = 1516 rev/min 0.25m 0.23m F1 = W F2 = kx
BenefitsShortcomings ➢ Generates green and renewable energy. ➢ Low maintenance fee with proper usage. ➢ Save money as the system reduces electricity consumption in the long run. ➢ People living in rural areas will be able to enjoy the electricity too. ➢ Concept is applicable in areas with gravity. ➢ Usage of plastic in the manufacturing process. ➢ A pulling force is needed to restart the system when it stops. ➢ Needs battery to supply current to load when the pinion is rotating in opposite direction.
Design can be customized based on residential, commercial and industrial purpose. Further research and development on the concept can be done to : Promote the usage of recyclable and environment friendly materials in the manufacturing process. Create a system that does not require a manual restart when the system stops and at the same time maintaining the efficiency of the system. Improve the design to make it more compact, elegant, classy. Minimize the usage of battery by creating a system that allows the generator to rotates in a single direction (eg. using camshaft or cam and follower systems). Power generated by the Gravity Electric Generator is green, efficient and sustainable for the entire mankind.