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TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Chapter 5

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Section 5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Learn how to convert decimal degree measures to degrees, minutes, and seconds. Find the number of degrees in a given number of rotations Identify angles that are coterminal with a given angle

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Vertex Endpoint of an angle Initial Side The ray of the angle that is fixed Terminal Side The second ray that rotates to form the angle Standard Position An angle with its vertex at the origin and its initial side along the positive x-axis

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure

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Degree Most common unit to measure an angle Minutes A degree is subdivided into 60 equal parts called minutes (1’) Seconds A minute is subdivided into 60 equal parts called seconds (1”) Example 1: Change 15.735 degrees to degrees, minutes, and seconds. 15.735 o =15 o +(0.735*60)’ =15 o +44.1’ =15 o +44’+(0.1*60)” =15 o +44’+6”

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Example 2: Change 329.125 degrees to degrees, minutes, and seconds. 329 o +7’+30” Example 3: Change 39 o +5’+34” to degrees 39 o +5’+34”=39 o +5’*(1 o /60’) +34” (1 o /3600’) 39.093 o Example 4: Change 35 o +12’+7” to degrees 35.202 o

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Quadrantal Angle If the terminal side of an angle that is in standard position coincides with one of the axes How many quadrantal angles are there? 44 What are their measures? 90 degrees 180 degrees 270 degrees 360 degrees

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Give the angle measure represented by the rotation about the axis 5.5 Rotations clockwise Which way do we rotate to go clockwise? Negative, clockwise rotations ALWAYS have negative measures 5.5 * -360 = -1980 degrees 3.3 Rotations counterclockwise Which way do we rotate to go counterclockwise? Positive, counterclockwise rotations ALWAYS have positive measures 3.3*360 = 1188 degrees 9.5 Rotations clockwise -3420 degrees 6.75 Rotations counterclockwise 2430 degrees

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Coterminal Angles If α is the degree measure of an angle, then all angles measuring α+ 360k degrees, where k is an integer; are coterminal with α. Two angles in standard position that have the same initial side Identify all angles that are coterminal with a 45 degree angle. Find one positive and one negative angle that are also coterminal. All angles having a measure of 45 o + 360k o Positive Angle 45 o + 360*(1) o =405 o Negative Angle 45 o + 360*(-2) o =-675 o

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Identify all angles that are coterminal with a 294 degree angle. Find one positive and one negative angle that are also coterminal. All angles having a measure of 294 o + 360k o Positive Angle 294 o + 360*(1) o =654 o Negative Angle 294 o + 360*(-1) o =-66 o

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure If an angle with 775 degrees is in standard position, determine a coterminal angle that is between 0 and 360 degrees. State the quadrant in which the terminal side lies. Find the number of rotations about the axis by dividing 775 by 360 = 2.15278 Since we need an angle between 0 and 360 degrees, what rotation number should we use? Subtract 2 and use.15278 α=.15278*360 Could also take the number and continue to subtract 360 until you get a number between 0 and 360. 55 o What quadrant does the terminal side fall in? Quadrant 1

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure If an angle with -777 degrees is in standard position, determine a coterminal angle that is between 0 and 360 degrees. State the quadrant in which the terminal side lies. 303 o What quadrant does the terminal side fall in? Quadrant 4

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Reference Angle The acute angle formed by the terminal side of the given angle and the x-axis Reference Angle Rule For any angle α, 0 o < α <360 o, its reference angle α’ is defined by: α, when the terminal side is in Quadrant I. 180 o - α, when the terminal side is in Quadrant II. α – 180 o, when the terminal side is in Quadrant III. 360 o - α, when the terminal side is in Quadrant IV.

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Find the measure of the reference angle for an angle with a measurement of 120 degrees What Quadrant does this angle’s terminal side fall in? Between 90 o and 180 o Quadrant II We use which formula? 180 o - α 180 o -120 o =60 o Find the measure of the reference angle for an angle with a measurement of -135degrees First we have to find a positive coterminal angle 360 o -135 o = 225 o What quadrant does this angle’s terminal side fall in? Between 180 o and 270 o Quadrant III α – 180 o 225 o -180 o =45 o

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5.1 Angles and Degree Measure Find the measure of the reference angle for an angle with a measurement of 312 degrees 48 o Find the measure of the reference angle for an angle with a measurement of -195 degrees 15 o

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Section 5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles Learn how to find the values of trigonometric ratios for actue angles of right triangles

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles What is a Right Triangle? A triangle with a 90 degree angle in it. How can we classify the other two angles in the right triangle? Must be acute Are also complementary What are the parts of a Right Triangle? < 1 + < 2 = 90 o Side C is the hypotenuse Sides A and B are the legs 1 2

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles When looking at one specific acute angle in a triangle, we can classify the legs by: Adjacent Side: the leg that is a side of the acute angle Opposite Side: the leg that is the side opposite the angle Looking at Triangle ABC, what are the adjacent and opposite sides for < B? B Hypotenuse Adjacent Opposite

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles Trigonometric Ratios The ratios of the sides of right triangles based on a specific acute angle within the right triangle Easy way to remember Sin, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios SOHCAHTOA Sine Ratio of the side opposite Θ and the hypotenuse Cosine Ratio of the side adjacent Θ and the hypotenuse Tangent Ratio of the side opposite Θ and the side adjacent to Θ

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles

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Find the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles Find the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles Cosecant Opposite of sine, cscΘ = 1/sin Θ Hypotenuse/side opposite Secant Opposite of cos, secΘ = 1/cosΘ Hypotenuse/side adjacent Cotangent Opposite of tan, cotΘ = 1/tanΘ Side Adjacent/ Side opposite

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles If cos Θ = ¾, what is sec Θ? sec Θ = 1/cos Θ =1/(3/4) =4/3 If sin Θ=0.8, what is csc Θ? =1.25 If csc Θ = 1.345 find sin Θ? sin Θ = 1/csc Θ =1/1.345 =.7435 If cot Θ = 6/5, what is tan Θ? =5/6

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5.2 Trigonometric Ratios in Right Triangles Find the values of the six trigonometric ratios for

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5.2 Continued Special Triangles 30 O -60 O -90 O 45 O -45 O -90 O What are the special relationships we know about these triangles? 30 O -60 O -90 O

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5.2 Continued What are the special relationships we know about these triangles? 45 O -45 O -90 O

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5.2 Continued Trigonometric Ratios for 30 o, 60 o, 90 o

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5.2 Continued Cofunctions Trigonometric functions that are equal when their arguments are complementary angles, such as sine and cosine, tangent and cotangent, and secant and cosecant. Sin Θ = Cos (90 O - Θ) Cos Θ = Sin (90 O - Θ) Tan Θ=Cot (90 O - Θ) Cot Θ=Tan (90 O - Θ) Sec Θ=Csc (90 O - Θ) Csc Θ=Sec (90 O - Θ)

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Section 5.3 Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Find the values of the six trigonometric functions using the unit circle Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position given a point on its terminal side

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Unit Circle A circle with a radius of 1 Usually with the center on the origin on the coordinate system Symmetric with respect to the x-axis, y-axis, and the origin

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Unit Circle Consider an angle between 0 O and 90 O in standard position Let P(x,y) be where the angle intersects with the unit circle Draw a perpendicular segment from intersection point back down to the positive x axis Creates a right triangle Find the sin Θ and cos Θ Sin Θ = y; Cos Θ = x

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Sine and Cosine on the Unit Circle If the terminal side of an angle Θ in standard position intersects the unit circle at P(x,y), then cos Θ = x and sin Θ=y.

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle

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Circular Functions Functions defined using the unit circle Ie Sin and Cosine How can we define the other cosine functions on the unit circle? Tan Θ = y/x Csc Θ =1/y Sec Θ =1/x Cot Θ = x/y

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Use the unit circle to find each value Cos (-180 O ) Which way do you go for negative angles? Clockwise What is the ordered pair of the intersection of this angle on the unit circle? (-1,0) Cos Θ = x-axis Cos (-180 O ) = -1 Sec(90 O ) Where is the angle located ? Terminal Side is on positive y axis Where is the intersection on the unit circle? Intersection at (0,1) Sec Θ = 1/x Sec(90 O )=1/0 = undefined

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Use the unit circle to find each value Sin(-90 O ) -1 Cot(270 O ) 00

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Use the unit circle to find the values of all six trigonometric functions for a 210 degree angle. What is the intersection with the unit circle? (-√(3) /2, -1/2) Sin Θ = -1/2 Cos Θ =- √(3) /2 Tan Θ = √(3) /3 Csc Θ =-2 Sec Θ =-2 √(3) /3 Cot Θ = √(3)

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Unit Circle Quiz Use the unit circle to find each value Tan 360 0 Cos 45 0 Sin(-60 0 ) Csc(-210 0 ) Sec(225 0 ) Name the six trigonometry functions for the angles below 150 0 420 0

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle What if the angle doesn’t fall within the unit circle? What if the length is greater or less than 1? Use length R instead of 1 in unit circle and R = (x 2 +y 2 ) 1/2

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle What are the six trigonometric values using length r? Sin Θ =y/r Cos Θ =x/r Tan Θ =y/x Csc Θ =r/y Sec Θ =r/x Cot Θ =x/y

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Trigonometric Functions on the Unit Circle Find the six trigonometric functions for angle Θ in standard position if a point with the coordinates (-15, 20) lies on its terminal side. Draw Figure on xy axis What are the side measures? Leg = -3 Leg = 4 Hypotenuse = 5 Where is the theta located? At the point they gave us What are the six functions? Sin Θ =4/5 Cos Θ =-3/5 Tan Θ=-4/3 Csc Θ =5/4 Sec Θ =-5/3 Cot Θ =-3/4

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Review Quiz 5.3 Suppose Θ is an angle in standard position whose terminal side lies in Quadrant III. If sin Θ = -4/5, find the values of the remaining five trigonometric functions of Θ? What do we need to do first? Draw figure Next? Find Missing Side +/-3, use negative 3 because Quadrant III Find 5 remaining trig functions. Cos Θ = -3/5 Tan Θ =4/3 Csc Θ =-5/4 Sec Θ =-5/3 Cot Θ =3/4

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5.4 Applying Trigonometric Functions Use trigonometry to find the measures of the sides of right triangles Make sure calculators are in degrees and not radians Press Mode Scroll down to third line and arrow left one Hit enter Quit Quick Check Cos(90) = 0

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Applying Trigonometric Functions In triangle PRQ, P = 35 o and r = 14. Find Q. First draw figure How is Q related to Θ? Adjacent Side What function should we use? Cosine Cos P = q/r Cos 35=q/14 14*cos(35)=Q Q is about 11.5

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Applying Trigonometric Functions Angles of Elevation The angle between a horizontal line and the line of sight from an observer to an object at a higher level Angles of Depression The angle between a horizontal line and thel ine of sight from the observer to an object at a lower level

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5.5 Solving Right Triangles Evaluate inverse trig functions. Find missing angle measurements. Solve right triangles.

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Solving Right Triangles Inverse of a Trigonometric Function The arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent relations with their corresponding trigonometric functions Arcsine Sin x = √3/2 Can be written as x = arcsine √3/2 or x = sin -1 √3/2 Read this as x is an angle whose sine is √3/2 Same for other two trig functions Arccosine Arctangent

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Solving Right Triangles Sin x = √3/2 X is an angle with sine √3/2 X = arcsine √3/2 or x = sin -1 √3/2 60 o, 120 o, or any coterminal angles with these Tan x = 1 45 o,225 o Sin x = -1/2 210 o, 330 o

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Solving Right Triangles Evaluate and assume angles are in Quadrant I Cos(arcsin 2/3) Let B = arcsin 2/3 Sin B = 2/3 Draw figure in Quadrant I Find X = √5/3 Try in calculator Tan(cos -1 4/5) 3/4

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Solving Right Triangles Solve the Triangle with A = 33 o and B = 5.8 First fill in known amounts Find Angle B Two acute angles in a right triangle are complementary B =90-33 o = 57 o degrees Find side A Tan A = a/b Tan 33 o = a / 5.8 5.8 Tan 33 o = a a = 3.767 Find side C Cos A = b/c Cos 33 o = 5.8/c C=5.8/cos 33 o c=6.916 B C A

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Solving Right Triangles Solve the Triangle with K = 40 o and k = 26 < L = 50 o l = 31.0 j = 40.4 K L J

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Section 5.6 The Law of Sines Solve triangles by using the Law of Sines if the measures of two angles and one side are given Find the area of a triangle if the measures of sides and the included angle or the measures of two angles and a side are given.

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The Law of Sines Let Triangle ABC by any triangle with a, b, and c representing the measures of the sides opposite the angles with measures A, B, and C, respectively. Then the following is true: a = b = c SinA SinB SinC

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The Law of Sines Solve triangle ABC if A = 33 o, B = 105 o, and b = 37.9 Find < C by subtracting the other two angle measures from 180 C= 42 o a = 37.9 Sin33 o Sin105 o A = 21.37 o c = 37.9 Sin42 o Sin105 o C=26.25 o

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The Law of Sines Area of a Triangle Let triangle ABC be any triangle with a, b, and c representing the measures of the sides opposite the angles with measurements A, B, C, respectively. Then the area K can be determined using: K = ½ * b* c* sinA K = ½ * a* c* sinB K = ½ * b* a* sinC

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The Law of Sines Find the area of triangle ABC if a = 4.7, c = 12.4, and B = 47 o 20’ First convert B to decimal degrees B = 47.33 o K = ½ * a* c* sinB K = ½ * 4.7*12.4*sin47.33 o K = 21.4 units 2 Find the area of triangle ABC if b = 21.2, c = 16.5, and A = 25 o K = ½ * b* c* sinA K = 73.9 units 2

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The Law of Sines Area of a Triangle Let triangle ABC be any triangle with a, b, and c representing the measures of the sides opposite the angles with measurements A, B, C, respectively. Then the area K can be determined using: K = ½*a 2 *sinB*sinC SinA K = ½*b 2 *sinA*sinC SinB K = ½*c 2 *sinB*sinA SinC

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The Law of Sines Find the area of triangle DEF if d = 13.9, D = 34.4 o, and E = 14.8 o Find the measure of

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Section 5.8 The Law of Cosines Let Triangle ABC by any triangle with a, b, and c representing the measures of the sides opposite the angles with measures A, B, and C, respectively. Then the following is true: a 2 =b 2 + c 2 -2*b*c*cosA b 2 =a 2 + c 2 -2*a*c*cosB c 2 =b 2 + a 2 -2*b*a*cosC

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The Law of Cosines Solve the triangle with the following information: A = 120 o,b=9, c=5 Solve for Side a a 2 =b 2 + c 2 -2*b*c*cosA a 2= 9 2 + 5 2 – 2*9*5*cos(120 o ) a 2= 426.97 a=12.3 Now use Law of Sines to find **
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**

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The Law of Cosines Try a triangle with A = 39.4 o,b = 12, c = 14 B=58.2 o C = 82.4 o a = 9.0 Try a triangle with a =19, b = 24.3, c = 21.8 A = 48.3 o B = 72.7 o C = 59 o

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The Law of Cosines Hero’s Formula If the measures of the sides of a triangle are a, b, and c, then the area, K, of the triangle is found as follows: K = √s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c) Where S = ½ (a+b+c)

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The Law of Cosines Find the area of the triangle with the following information: a=72 cm b=83 cm c=95 cm K = √s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c) Where S = ½ (a+b+c) S=125 K=2889.2 cm 2

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