# (1) Picture on the right shows the interior of the Pantheon rotunda. What was the original function of the Pantheon, and where in Rome was it built? [ACH]

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(1) Picture on the right shows the interior of the Pantheon rotunda. What was the original function of the Pantheon, and where in Rome was it built? [ACH] A Temple (to “all gods”) Built on the Campus Martius

(2) Name the TWO parts of the building one has to go through to enter the rotunda. [ACH] Porch and Vestibule

(3) The Emperor Hadrian was responsible for the reconstruction of this building. Identify TWO features of the rotunda’s interior that are typically Hadrianic. [ACH] the niches the oculus the dome the curved walls

(4) The eight projecting niches around the walls of the rotunda contained statues. Whom did these statues honour? [ACH] The planetary gods OR TWO of Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mars, Mercury, Sun, Moon.

(5) Discuss THREE features of the rotunda’s interior that give it a spacious feeling. Provide examples to illustrate your answer. [MER] An impression of space is given by: its unimpeded view up to the ceiling the high domed ceiling, with its oculus opening out to the sky the reflective qualities of the paved floor (with its granite and marble in geometric designs) and the walls lined with marble and red (porphyry) granite the uncluttered floor space, free of statues and columns. niches/alcoves (Other examples are possible.)

(6) The section below shows the innovative design of the rotunda. (i)What aspects of the design of the rotunda are explained by this section? (ii)Explain in detail TWO effects of this innovative design. [MER] (i)It shows that the height from the floor to the top of the dome is exactly the same as the diameter of the drum. It shows that a sphere resting on the floor of the rotunda would fit perfectly inside it, touching the cylindrical walls and reaching the top of the vault. (ii)Effects of this design: relates the building to the heavens and to the deities to whom it was dedicated – the planetary gods creates a sense of harmony and order and the feeling that the world is regulated (by gods) through its size, grandeur and aesthetic appeal encourages a mood of piety provides an additional element of structural strength in a uniquely vast rotunda. Gives the rotunda a spacious feel. (Other points are possible.)

(7) Art historians N. H. Ramage and A. Ramage describe this building as “an architectural masterpiece … a wonder of construction”. How valid is this judgement? In your answer you must discuss in detail FOUR of the Pantheon’s constructional features and explain why each is important. Do not repeat information used elsewhere. [EXC] Constructional features: The foundations are made of concrete and they are deep. This adds structural strength and enables the building to carry the weight of the dome. Eight concrete piers and huge arches strengthen the walls of the rotunda and enable it to support the weight of the dome. The walls reduce in thickness as they rise so they become lighter. Concrete aggregates OR materials used higher up were lighter than those used in the lower levels, eg travertine stone was used for the foundations, and pumice for the dome. Specific example not necessary. On the exterior, the dome is buttressed by a series of steps to prevent it from collapsing under its own weight. The coffers (5 rows) reduces the weight the oculus reduces the weight of the dome. the vestibule buttresses the rotunda. (Other answers are possible.)

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