2 Island 1 What is evolution? What was Darwin’s contribution to science? “the process by which organisms havechanged over time.” Miller & Levine, Biology (p.450)What was Darwin’s contribution to science?“Darwin developed a scientific theory of biological evolution that explains how modern organisms evolved over long periods of time through descent from common ancestors.” Miller & Levine, Biology (p.450)When did Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle begin? How long did it last for? 5 yearsWhat was the purpose of his voyage?Map the coastline of South America
3 Island 2Look at the map of Darwin’s voyage on page Also have the world biome map open from page How many different biomes did Darwin visit on his voyage?Temperate ForestTemperate Woodland / ShrublandTropical Grassland / Savanna / ShrublandDesertTropical RainforestTemperate GrasslandHow did the geography of Darwin’s voyage give him far greater exposure to species variability than his fellow scientists back home had?While surveying the various coastlines and visiting many continents, Darwin traveled to many different biomes. The more he traveled to more ecological environments, the more he was exposed to varying species.
4 Island 3 & 4The 3 netbooks have 3 different birds from 3 different places in the world. List the names of the birds and the places in the world they come from:How are these birds similar? How are they different?Bird:Where it is from:a. OstrichAfricab. RheasSouth Americac. EmuAustrilaSimilar:DifferentLargeDifferent FeathersFlightlessRheas & Emus have 3 toes, Ostriches have 2 toesLive in GrasslandsLive exclusively to their respective continent
5 Island 3 & 4This leads us to Darwin’s first set of observations. Using the birds as examples, what can you conclude about different species of birds living in different places in the world?Darwin saw that different, yet economically similar, animals lived in similar environments around the world!For example, he noticed that Rheas, Ostriches, and Emus were all different, but shared similarities as large flightless birds that adapted to grasslands.“Darwin noticed that different, yet ecologically similar, animal species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar, habitats around the world.” Miller & Levine, Biology (p.451)
6 Off the coast of Equator in South America Island 5Where are the Galapagos Islands located?Off the coast of Equator in South AmericaWhat are some interesting species of animals found there?Giant TortoisesMockingbirdsFinchesMarine Iguanas
7 Island 6 & 7Look at the 2 different netbook pictures of the 2 different tortoises. These each come from different islands. What can you infer about the different tortoises and the shape of their shell?Tortoise shells have predictably adapted to their specific island environment.Isabella Island TortoiseHood Island TortoiseDome Shaped ShellCurved Shells with a Large Neck OpeningShort NecksLong NecksFood is abundant and lowFood is sparse and high
8 Island 8Look at the picture of the different finches on the Galapagos Islands. What can you infer about their different beaks?PlatyspizaCerthideaPinaroloxiasGeospizaTree FinchGround FinchStrips bark from treesEats small exposed insectsEats insects, fruit, and nectarEats large, thick seedsNeeds a beak to grip and hold firmNeeds thin, straight, narrow beak, with firm grip tipNeeds a curved, beak that can probe and gripNeeds a strong, thick, sharp beak that can apply pressure and break shellsBeak similar to pliers!Beak similar to forceps!Beak similar to needle-nose pliers!Beak similar to a heavy duty wire cutters!
9 Island 8Based on questions 11 and 12, what can you conclude about different animals (even though they may be related) and the habitats they live in?Species Vary…Globally (think about the large, flightless birds on different continents)Locally (think about the various finches across the Galapagos Islands)Over Time (think about the various fossils Darwin found)
10 Island 9Referring to the displayed fossils. Can you think of any modern day animals that resemble these fossils? Which animals?FishTrilobite (Early Arthropod)ShellsClamsCoralPlant leaf, petrified woodDeer antlers (not fossilized, Just old) Darwin also found fossils that didn’t resemble any living organisms. How might this finding have affected his understanding of life’s diversity?“This wonderful relationship in the same continent between the dead and the living, will, I do not doubt, hereafter throw more light on the appearance of organic beings on our earth, and their disappearance from it, than any other class of facts.” ~ Darwin (Miller & Levine, Biology, p.453)