Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire After Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years."— Presentation transcript:
1The Byzantine EmpireAfter Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years.
2A New Rome in a New Setting The Eastern Roman EmpireRoman Empire officially divides into East and West in 395.Eastern Empire flourishes; becomes known as ByzantiumJustinian becomes emperor of Byzantium in 527.His armies reconquer much of the former Roman territory.Byzantine emperors head state and church, use brutal politics
3Life in the New Rome New Laws for the Empire Justinian seeks to revise and update laws for governing the empireJustinian Code—new set of laws consisting of four main partsCode regulates much of Byzantine life; lasts for 900 years.
4Justinian Creating the Imperial Capital Justinian launches a program to beautify the capital, Constantinople.Constructs new buildings; builds magnificent church, Hagia Sophia.Byzantines preserve Greco-Roman culture and learning.
8Constantinople Constantinople’s Hectic Pace City becomes trading hub with major marketplace.Giant Hippodrome offers chariot races and other entertainment.Racing fans start riots in 532; the government restores order violently.Empress Theodora is the powerful wife and adviser to Justinian.
9Activities-Part 1 Topic: Byzantine Empire vs. Roman Empire Student Activity: Create a compare and contrast Venn Diagram evaluating how the Byzantine church differed from the Roman church in its use of icons, language, and imperial authority over the church, and marriage of priests.
10Activities Part 2 Topic: Rise of Emperor Justinian Student Activity: Click on the following link below and view the slide show. Drawing conclusions based on the slideshow, write a two paragraph description of the life of Emperor Justinian.
11The Empire Falls Years of Turmoil Attacks from East and West Justinian dies in 565; the empire faces many crises after his death.Attacks from East and WestByzantium faces attacks from many different groups.Empire survives through bribery, diplomacy, and military power.Constantinople falls in 1453; brings an end to the Byzantine Empire.
12The Church Divides A Religious Split Christianity develops differently in Eastern and Western Roman Empires.Two churches disagree over many issues, including the use of icons.Icons are two-dimensional religious images used to aid in prayer.Leading bishop of Eastern Christianity is known as a Patriarch.In the West, the pope excommunicates the emperor, banishing him from the church over the iconoclast controversy.
13The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* Eastern ChurchWestern ChurchPOLITICAL RIVALRYByzantine EmpireHoly Roman EmpireCLAIMS OF PAPACYPatriarch of Constantinople was considered second in primacy to the bishop of Rome.Bishop of Rome claimed supremacy over entire church.THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTStagnated after Council of Chalcedon.Continued to change and grow through controversies and expansion.FILIOQUE CONTROVERSEYDeclared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father.Declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.ICONOCLASTIC CONTROVERSYEngaged in 120-year dispute over the use of icons in worship; finally concluded they could be used (statues prohibited).Made constant attempts to interfere in what was purely an Eastern dispute (statues permitted).*from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.
14The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* Eastern ChurchWestern ChurchDIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE AND CULTUREGreek/OrientalLatin/OccidentalCLERICAL CELIBACYLower clergy were permitted to marry.All clergy were required to be celibate.OUTSIDE PRESSURESMuslims constricted and put continual pressure on Eastern Church.Western Barbarians were Christianized and assimilated by Western church.MUTUAL EXCOMMUNICATION OF 1054Michael Cerularius anathematized Pope Leo IX after having been excommunicated by him.Leo IX excommunicated Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople.*from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.
15Four Original Provinces within Christianity Recognized by the Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) RomeAntiochJerusalemAlexandriaIn 325, the Council of Nicaea recognized only four major jurisdictions within the church. Due to the Jewish revolts of the 1st and 2nd Centuries, a shift in the influence of Christianity had taken place away from Jerusalem. Antioch and Alexandria became major jurisdictions, but because of conflicting schools of interpretation and theology often disputed with one another. After its founding by Constantine, Constantinople was rising in importance and later its Patriarch also disputed with Alexandria over theology (e.g. Nestorius who held to the Nestorian heresy of a two-person Christology). Rome, being the original seat of the Roman Empire was given Primacy as “first among equals.” This meant that the opinion of the pope of Rome was canvassed in theological disputes. He was given some jurisdiction outside of Rome, but it did not mean he had jurisdiction over the other three provinces. It was implied that the distance of Rome from the other provinces gave the Pope some level of impartiality as to theological opinion, but not a definitive say in settling disputes.
16“Pentarchy”: Five Provinces Recognized by the Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.) ConstantinopleRomeAntiochJerusalemAlexandriaIn 381 the Council of Constantinople elevated Constantinople to a Patriarchate (major province) because the seat of the Roman government was moved there. Constantine had called Constantinople “Nova Roma” (New Rome). Theodosius the Great, who died in 395, was the last emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire. In 410 Germanic tribes (Visogoths) had sacked Rome, and by the middle of the 5th century the western Roman Empire had fallen. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon—which settled the Christological controversies of the time—affirmed a fifth province in Constantinople.
17Eastern Orthodox View of the Equality of Patriarchs Patriarch of Rome“primacy”First Among EqualsPatriarchofConstantinoplePatriarch of AlexandriaPatriarch of AntiochPatriarch of Jerusalem“First among equals” merely meant that the Pope’s opinion was the one that was asked first. As noted above, the distance of Rome from the east could imply impartiality. But the Eastern Orthodox did not hold that the Pope’s opinion was law for the entire Church. In the ancient “pentarchy”, he would preside as the “chair” in an ecumenical council. This did not give him any authority over other jurisdictions however.
18Roman Catholic View of “Papal Supremacy” Pope of RomeSupreme above other provincesPatriarch ofConstant- inoplePatriarch of AlexandriaPatriarch of AntiochPatriarch of Jerusalem
20Activity-Part 1Log on to:Scroll down to: Diary Entry ActivityFill out the compare and contrast chartTime: 30 minutes
21Activity-Part 2Scroll down to Option A and construct a political cartoon.Must incorporate at least 2 of the listed techniques!Time: 25 minutes
22Effect of Islamic Conquests ConstantinopleRomeAntiochJerusalemAlexandriaThe Islamic conquests of the 7th and 8th Centuries effectively eliminate any influence of the patriarchates of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria in the Christian world. Constantinople had already been given second place in “primacy” to Rome, therefore the two main “rival” patriarchates are Rome and Constantinople. This sets up the political conflict that was to come and be exacerbated by the linguistic, liturgical, and theological differences between Rome and Constantinople.
23Linguistic Disunity West—dominant language Latin East—dominant language GreekDecline in bilingualism after the fall of the western empireLinguistic disunity develops into cultural disunityDifferent religious rites and liturgy developDifferent approaches to Christian doctrine emerge
24Papal Supremacy and the Nicene Creed Pope Leo IX claimed he held authority over the four eastern patriarchs.The Pope in 1014 inserted the “Filioque clause” (the words “and the son” in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit) into the Latin version of the Nicene Creed. (This was not allowed by the Roman church in the Greek version).The Eastern Orthodox today state that the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople are equal, therefore, the Roman pontiff could not claim authority over Constantinople.
25Iconoclast Controversy The Byzantine Emperor Leo III outlawed the veneration of icons in the 8th century. Some believe this to be a result of the pressures of Islam. Those who were against the use of icons in the church were called “iconoclasts.The western church rejected iconoclasm. However, icons, which are generally two dimensional works of art were generally not used. Instead, statues were allowed in the western church .
27Different Church/State Relations Caesaropapism in the east subordinated the church to the religious claims of the dominant political state. In the Byzantine Empire, the emperor had supreme authority over the church.In the west the church was relatively independent of the state due to the fall of the western empire and a lack of authority.Later, when strong kingdoms emerge in Western Europe, the controversy surfaces creating church/state conflicts.
28CaesaropapismRussia established caesaropapist control over the Russian Orthodox Church in the city of Kiev.In 989 C.E., the Russian leader, Prince Vladimir, converted to Orthodox Christianity and urged all of his subjects to follow his example.
29Church/State Relations Contd… Pope and patriarch excommunicate each other over religious doctrines and disputes over jurisdiction.Eastern and Western churches officially split in 1054.West—Roman Catholic ChurchEast—Orthodox Church
30Conclusion Byzantine Missionaries Convert the Slavs Eastern Orthodox missionaries seek to convert the northern peoples known as the Slavs.Missionaries create the Cyrillic alphabet—the basis for many Slavic languages.Alphabet enables many groups to read the Bible.
31QuizNext week on Byzantine Empire! Study over the weekend!
32Activity Drawing an Icon! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7tKexc4wSM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43yPMicTjW4
36Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes The Arabian PeninsulaA crossroads of three continents: Africa, Asia, Europe.Mostly desert with a small amount of fertile landThe Arabian PeninsulaA crossroads of three continents:AfricaAsiaEuropeMostly desert with a small amount of fertile land
37Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Desert and Town LifeBedouins, Arab nomads, thrive in the desert.Bedouins live in clans, which give support to members.Some Arabs settle near oases or market towns.Desert and Town LifeBedouins, Arab nomads, thrive in the desert.Bedouins live in clans, which give support to members.Some Arabs settle near oases or market towns.
38Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Crossroads of Trade and IdeasMany sea and land trade routes pass through Arabia.Trade extends to the Byzantine and Sassanid empires to the north.Crossroads of Trade and IdeasMany sea and land trade routes pass through Arabia.Trade extends to the Byzantine and Sassanid empires to the north.
40Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes MeccaPilgrims come to Mecca to worship at the Ka’aba, an ancient shrine.Arabs associate shrine with Hebrew prophet Abraham and monotheism.Most Arabs believe in one God—Allah in ArabicMeccaPilgrims come to Mecca to worship at the Ka’aba, and ancient shrine.Arabs associate shrine with Hebrew prophet Abraham and monotheism.Some tribes worship many gods and spirits, and bring idols to Ka’aba.Some Arabs believe in one God—Allah in Arabic
42The Prophet Muhammad Early Life Around A.D. 570 Muhammad is born into a powerful Meccan clan.He becomes a trader, and marries a wealthy businesswoman, Khadijah.Early LifeAround A.D. 570 Muhammad is born into a powerful Meccan clan.He becomes a trader, and marries a wealthy businesswoman, Khadijah.
43The Prophet Muhammad Revelations By age 40, Muhammad spends much time in prayer and meditationHe claims to hear the angel Gabriel tell him he is a messenger of Allah.Muhammad found the religion of Islam—meaning “submission to the will of Allah”Many join him and become Muslim—meaning “one who has submitted.”RevelationsBy age 40, Muhammad spends much time in prayer and meditationHe claims to hear the angel Gabriel tell him he is a messenger of Allah.Muhammad found the religion of Islam—meaning “submission to the will of Allah”Many join him and become Muslim—meaning “one who has submitted.”
44The Prophet Muhammad The Hijrah Muhammad’s followers are attacked; together they leave Mecca in 622.Hijrah was the Muslim migration from Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina).The HijrahMuhammad’s followers are attacked; together they leave Mecca in 622.Hijrah was the Muslim migration from Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina).
45The Prophet Muhammad The Hijrah (continued) Muhammad attracts many more followers and becomes a great leader.Political leader—joins Jews and Arabs of Medina in a single community.Religious leader—draws more converts to Islam.Military leader—tackles growing hostilities between Mecca and MedinaThe Hijrah (continued)Muhammad attracts many more followers and becomes a great leader.Political leader—joins Jews and Arabs of Medina in a single community.Religious leader—draws more converts to Islam.Military leader—tackles growing hostilities between Mecca and Medina
46ActivityCreate a timeline comparing Muhammad's life from 570 (Muhammad's birth) to 632 (Muhammad's death) with other events that were occurring at the same time outside of the Arabian Peninsula. These other events should be related to another person, another culture, or another geographic region.Plot the events near the appropriate dates on the timeline.Summarize the events in your own words.Have a minimum of eight events on each portion of the timeline. (Eight for Muhammad, and eight for the other person, culture or geographic region.)Create three visuals for events relating to Muhammad, and three for the other portion of the timeline. The visuals need to show a clear connection to the events they represent. Use color and place visuals close to the events on the timeline.
48The Prophet Muhammad Returning to Mecca In 630, Muhammad and 10,000 followers return to MeccaMeccan leaders surrender.Muhammad destroys idols in the Ka’aba.Meccans convert to Islam.Muhammad unifies Arabian Peninsula.Returning to MeccaIn 630, Muhammad and 10,000 followers return to MeccaMeccan leaders surrender.Muhammad destroys idols in the Ka’aba.Meccans convert to Islam.Muhammad unifies Arabian Peninsula.
49The Beliefs and Practices of Islam The main teaching of Islam is that there is only one god, Allah.People are responsible for their own actions; there is good and evil.Islamic monument in Jerusalem—Dome of the Rock.It is the oldest existing Islamic building in the world.Muslims believe Muhammad rose to heaven here to learn Allah’s will.Jews believe Abraham was prepared to sacrifice son Isaac at that same site.IslamThe main teaching of Islam is that there is only one god, Allah.People are responsible for their own actions; there is good and evil.Islamic monument in Jerusalem—Dome of the Rock.Muslims believe Muhammad rose to heaven here to learn Allah’s will.Jews believe Abraham was prepared to sacrifice son Isaac at that same site.
50The Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
52Dome of the Rock viewed through the Old City’s “Cotton Gate”.
53Panoramic view of Jerusalem with the Dome of the Rock visible.
54and Muhammad is his prophet” (pilgrimage) once in you life ISLAMFasting duringRamadanConfession of Faithand Muhammad is his prophet”“There is only one GodPrayer (5 x Day)Performing the Hajj(pilgrimage) once in you lifeAlms to Poor
55The Beliefs and Practices of Islam The Five Pillars: Muslims must carry out these five duties.Statement of Faith to Allah and to Muhammad as his prophet.Prayer five times a day. Muslims may use the mosque for this (an Islamic house of worship).Giving alms, or money for the poor.Fasting between dawn and sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.Performing the hajj—pilgrimage to Mecca—at least once in a lifetime.The Five Pillars: Muslims must carry out these five duties.Statement of Faith to Allah and to Muhammad as his prophet.Prayer five times a day. Muslims may use the mosque for this (an Islamic house of worship).Giving alms, or money for the poor.Fasting between dawn and sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.Performing the hajj—pilgrimage to Mecca—at least once in a lifetime.
56The Beliefs and Practices of Islam Sources of AuthorityOriginal source of authority for Muslims is Allah.Qur’an (Koran)—holy book, contains revelations Muhammad claims to have received from Allah.Muslims follow Sunna—Muhammad’s example for proper living.Guidance of the Qur’an and Sunna are assembled in a body of law called shari’a.Sources of AuthorityOriginal Source of authority for Muslims is Allah.Qur’an (Koran)—holy book, contains revelations Muhammad claims to have received from Allah.Muslims follow Sunna—Muhammad’s example for proper living.Guidance of the Qur’an and Sunna are assembled in a body of law called shari’a.
57The first verses of the first Sura Al-Fatiha (meaning “The Opener”) from the Qur’an done in beautiful calligraphy and geometric art.
59Interlinear edition of the Qur’an with a Persian translation underneath.
60The Beliefs and Practices of Islam Links to Judaism and ChristianityMuslims believe Allah is the same God worshiped by Christians and Jews.Muslims believe the Qur’an, Gospels, and Torah contain God’s will as revealed through others.Muslims, Christians, and Jews trace their roots to Abraham.All three religions believe in heaven, hell, and a day of judgment.Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance.Links to Judaism and ChristianityMuslims believe Allah is the same God worshiped by Christians and Jews.Muslims believe the Qur’an, Gospels, and Torah contain God’s will as revealed through others.Muslims, Christians, and Jews trace their roots to Abraham.All three religions believe in heaven, hell, and a day of judgment.Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance.
61Activity Part 1: Monotheistic Religions Chart Part 2: Islam Vocabulary (Matching)Part 3: Quiz Corrections
62Islam ExpansionIn spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims create a huge empire that includes land on three continents.
63Vocabularycaliph Highest political and religious leader in a Muslim governmentUmayyads Dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from A.D. 661 to 750Shi’a Branch of Islam whose members believe the first four caliphs are the rightful successors of MuhammadSunni Branch of Islam whose members believe Ali and his descendants are the rightful successors of Muhammad
64Vocabulary Sufi Muslim who tries to achieve direct contact with God Abbasids Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258al-Andalus Muslim-ruled area in what is now SpainFatimid Member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima
65Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam A New LeaderIn 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be the first caliph.Caliph—title for a Muslim leader—means “successor” or “deputy.
66Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam “Rightly Guided” CaliphsThe first four caliphs are guided by the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions.Jihad—an armed struggle against unbelievers—is used to expand Islam.Muslims control all of Arabia, and armies conquer Syria and lower Egypt.By 750, the Muslim empire stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River.
67Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Reasons for SuccessMuslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded.Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict.Persecuted citizens of these empires welcome Islam.People are attracted to Islam’s offer of equality and hope.
68Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Treatment of Conquered PeoplesMuslim invaders tolerate other religions.Christians and Jews receive special consideration as “people of the book.”
69From 632 to 750, highly mobile troops mounted on camels were successful in conquering lands in the name of Allah.
70Activity What does “jihad” mean for Muslims? What does “infidel” mean for Muslims?What does “jihad” mean in today’s world?Why is “jihad” so controversial for everyone?Research the answers to these 4 questions and then write 3 paragraphs explaining the answers to these three questions.
71ObjectiveTELL ME WHY I SHOULD CARE ABOUT JIHAD IN YOUR ESSAY.
73Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Rise of the UmayyadsStruggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliphA wealthy family, the Umayyads, take power and move the capital to Damascus.
74Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Sunni—Shi’a SplitShi’a— “party” of Ali—believe the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad.Sunni—followers of Muhammad’s example—supported the Umayyads.Sufi followers pursue life of poverty and spirituality. They reject the Umayyads.In 750, a rebel group—the Abbasids—topple the Umayyads.
76Control Extends Over Three-Continents Fall of the UmayyadsAbbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-RahmanHe flees to Spain and establishes the Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus.al-Andalus is a Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans.
77Control Extends Over Three-Continents Abbasids Consolidate PowerIn 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Bagdad.Location provides access to trade goods, gold, and information.Abbasids develop a strong bureaucracy to manage empire.
78Control Extends Over Three-Continents Rival Groups Divide Muslim LandsIndependent Muslim states spring up; Shi’a Muslims form new caliphateFatimid caliphate—claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad.
79Control Extends Over Three-Continents Muslim Trade NetworkMuslims trade by land and sea with Asia and EuropeMuslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks.Cordoba, in al-Andalus, is a dazzling center of Muslim cutlure.
80ConclusionRemains the most powerful empire until the Mongols in East Asia begin to take over and Europe begins to transform from a Medieval to a Renaissance/humanist society.
81Activity Compare and Contrast Shi’ites and Sunnies. 1. Read the article2. Complete Venn Diagram
82Activity-2 paragraph response 1. Why do you think people get so confused about Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims? Do stereotypes play a role in this at all?2. How did the loss of the caliphate affect Islam? How is understanding the importance of the caliphate and its end important for understanding Islamic leadership in the modern world?