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The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire After Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years.

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Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire After Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire After Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years.

2 A New Rome in a New Setting The Eastern Roman Empire The Eastern Roman Empire –Roman Empire officially divides into East and West in 395. –Eastern Empire flourishes; becomes known as Byzantium –Justinian becomes emperor of Byzantium in 527. –His armies reconquer much of the former Roman territory. –Byzantine emperors head state and church, use brutal politics

3 Life in the New Rome New Laws for the Empire New Laws for the Empire –Justinian seeks to revise and update laws for governing the empire –Justinian Code—new set of laws consisting of four main parts –Code regulates much of Byzantine life; lasts for 900 years.

4 Justinian Creating the Imperial Capital Creating the Imperial Capital –Justinian launches a program to beautify the capital, Constantinople. –Constructs new buildings; builds magnificent church, Hagia Sophia. –Byzantines preserve Greco-Roman culture and learning.

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7 Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng-- WLT0Xjc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng-- WLT0Xjc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng-- WLT0Xjc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng-- WLT0Xjc

8 Constantinople Constantinople’s Hectic Pace Constantinople’s Hectic Pace –City becomes trading hub with major marketplace. –Giant Hippodrome offers chariot races and other entertainment. –Racing fans start riots in 532; the government restores order violently. –Empress Theodora is the powerful wife and adviser to Justinian.

9 Activities-Part 1 Topic: Byzantine Empire vs. Roman Empire Topic: Byzantine Empire vs. Roman Empire Student Activity: Create a compare and contrast Venn Diagram evaluating how the Byzantine church differed from the Roman church in its use of icons, language, and imperial authority over the church, and marriage of priests. Student Activity: Create a compare and contrast Venn Diagram evaluating how the Byzantine church differed from the Roman church in its use of icons, language, and imperial authority over the church, and marriage of priests. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaint exthistories.asp?historyid=ac59 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaint exthistories.asp?historyid=ac59

10 Activities Part 2 Topic: Rise of Emperor Justinian Topic: Rise of Emperor Justinian Student Activity: Click on the following link below and view the slide show. Drawing conclusions based on the slideshow, write a two paragraph description of the life of Emperor Justinian. Student Activity: Click on the following link below and view the slide show. Drawing conclusions based on the slideshow, write a two paragraph description of the life of Emperor Justinian. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/just/ hd_just.htm http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/just/ hd_just.htm

11 The Empire Falls Years of Turmoil Years of Turmoil –Justinian dies in 565; the empire faces many crises after his death. Attacks from East and West Attacks from East and West –Byzantium faces attacks from many different groups. –Empire survives through bribery, diplomacy, and military power. –Constantinople falls in 1453; brings an end to the Byzantine Empire.

12 The Church Divides A Religious Split A Religious Split –Christianity develops differently in Eastern and Western Roman Empires. –Two churches disagree over many issues, including the use of icons. –Icons are two-dimensional religious images used to aid in prayer. –Leading bishop of Eastern Christianity is known as a Patriarch. –In the West, the pope excommunicates the emperor, banishing him from the church over the iconoclast controversy.

13 The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* CauseEastern ChurchWestern Church POLITICAL RIVALRYByzantine EmpireHoly Roman Empire CLAIMS OF PAPACYPatriarch of Constantinople was considered second in primacy to the bishop of Rome. Bishop of Rome claimed supremacy over entire church. THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Stagnated after Council of Chalcedon. Continued to change and grow through controversies and expansion. FILIOQUE CONTROVERSEYDeclared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. Declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. ICONOCLASTIC CONTROVERSY Engaged in 120-year dispute over the use of icons in worship; finally concluded they could be used (statues prohibited). Made constant attempts to interfere in what was purely an Eastern dispute (statues permitted). *from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.

14 The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* CauseEastern ChurchWestern Church DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Greek/OrientalLatin/Occidental CLERICAL CELIBACYLower clergy were permitted to marry. All clergy were required to be celibate. OUTSIDE PRESSURESMuslims constricted and put continual pressure on Eastern Church. Western Barbarians were Christianized and assimilated by Western church. MUTUAL EXCOMMUNICATION OF 1054 Michael Cerularius anathematized Pope Leo IX after having been excommunicated by him. Leo IX excommunicated Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople. *from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.

15 Four Original Provinces within Christianity Recognized by the Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem Rome In 325, the Council of Nicaea recognized only four major jurisdictions within the church. Due to the Jewish revolts of the 1 st and 2 nd Centuries, a shift in the influence of Christianity had taken place away from Jerusalem. Antioch and Alexandria became major jurisdictions, but because of conflicting schools of interpretation and theology often disputed with one another. After its founding by Constantine, Constantinople was rising in importance and later its Patriarch also disputed with Alexandria over theology (e.g. Nestorius who held to the Nestorian heresy of a two-person Christology). Rome, being the original seat of the Roman Empire was given Primacy as “first among equals.” This meant that the opinion of the pope of Rome was canvassed in theological disputes. He was given some jurisdiction outside of Rome, but it did not mean he had jurisdiction over the other three provinces. It was implied that the distance of Rome from the other provinces gave the Pope some level of impartiality as to theological opinion, but not a definitive say in settling disputes.

16 “Pentarchy”: Five Provinces Recognized by the Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.) Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem Rome Constantinople In 381 the Council of Constantinople elevated Constantinople to a Patriarchate (major province) because the seat of the Roman government was moved there. Constantine had called Constantinople “Nova Roma” (New Rome). Theodosius the Great, who died in 395, was the last emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire. In 410 Germanic tribes (Visogoths) had sacked Rome, and by the middle of the 5 th century the western Roman Empire had fallen. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon—which settled the Christological controversies of the time—affirmed a fifth province in Constantinople.

17 Eastern Orthodox View of the Equality of Patriarchs Patriarch of Rome “primacy” First Among Equals Patriarch of Rome “primacy” First Among Equals Patriarch of Constantinople Patriarch of Constantinople Patriarch of Alexandria Patriarch of Antioch Patriarch of Jerusalem “First among equals” merely meant that the Pope’s opinion was the one that was asked first. As noted above, the distance of Rome from the east could imply impartiality. But the Eastern Orthodox did not hold that the Pope’s opinion was law for the entire Church. In the ancient “pentarchy”, he would preside as the “chair” in an ecumenical council. This did not give him any authority over other jurisdictions however.

18 Roman Catholic View of “Papal Supremacy” Pope of Rome Supreme above other provinces Pope of Rome Supreme above other provinces Patriarch of Constant- inople Patriarch of Constant- inople Patriarch of Alexandria Patriarch of Antioch Patriarch of Jerusalem

19 Video Conclusion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IARa gygaQhg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IARa gygaQhg

20 Activity-Part 1 Log on to: http://lukensocialstudies.weebly.com/the- great-schism.html Log on to: http://lukensocialstudies.weebly.com/the- great-schism.html http://lukensocialstudies.weebly.com/the- great-schism.html http://lukensocialstudies.weebly.com/the- great-schism.html Scroll down to: Diary Entry Activity Scroll down to: Diary Entry Activity Fill out the compare and contrast chart Fill out the compare and contrast chart Time: 30 minutes Time: 30 minutes

21 Activity-Part 2 Scroll down to Option A and construct a political cartoon. Scroll down to Option A and construct a political cartoon. Must incorporate at least 2 of the listed techniques! Must incorporate at least 2 of the listed techniques! Time: 25 minutes Time: 25 minutes

22 Effect of Islamic Conquests Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem Rome Constantinople The Islamic conquests of the 7 th and 8 th Centuries effectively eliminate any influence of the patriarchates of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria in the Christian world. Constantinople had already been given second place in “primacy” to Rome, therefore the two main “rival” patriarchates are Rome and Constantinople. This sets up the political conflict that was to come and be exacerbated by the linguistic, liturgical, and theological differences between Rome and Constantinople.

23 Linguistic Disunity West—dominant language Latin West—dominant language Latin East—dominant language Greek East—dominant language Greek Decline in bilingualism after the fall of the western empire Decline in bilingualism after the fall of the western empire Linguistic disunity develops into cultural disunity Linguistic disunity develops into cultural disunity –Different religious rites and liturgy develop –Different approaches to Christian doctrine emerge

24 Papal Supremacy and the Nicene Creed Pope Leo IX claimed he held authority over the four eastern patriarchs. Pope Leo IX claimed he held authority over the four eastern patriarchs. The Pope in 1014 inserted the “Filioque clause” (the words “and the son” in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit) into the Latin version of the Nicene Creed. (This was not allowed by the Roman church in the Greek version). The Pope in 1014 inserted the “Filioque clause” (the words “and the son” in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit) into the Latin version of the Nicene Creed. (This was not allowed by the Roman church in the Greek version). The Eastern Orthodox today state that the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople are equal, therefore, the Roman pontiff could not claim authority over Constantinople. The Eastern Orthodox today state that the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople are equal, therefore, the Roman pontiff could not claim authority over Constantinople.

25 Iconoclast Controversy The Byzantine Emperor Leo III outlawed the veneration of icons in the 8 th century. Some believe this to be a result of the pressures of Islam. Those who were against the use of icons in the church were called “iconoclasts. The Byzantine Emperor Leo III outlawed the veneration of icons in the 8 th century. Some believe this to be a result of the pressures of Islam. Those who were against the use of icons in the church were called “iconoclasts. The western church rejected iconoclasm. However, icons, which are generally two dimensional works of art were generally not used. Instead, statues were allowed in the western church. The western church rejected iconoclasm. However, icons, which are generally two dimensional works of art were generally not used. Instead, statues were allowed in the western church.

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27 Different Church/State Relations Caesaropapism in the east subordinated the church to the religious claims of the dominant political state. In the Byzantine Empire, the emperor had supreme authority over the church. Caesaropapism in the east subordinated the church to the religious claims of the dominant political state. In the Byzantine Empire, the emperor had supreme authority over the church. In the west the church was relatively independent of the state due to the fall of the western empire and a lack of authority. In the west the church was relatively independent of the state due to the fall of the western empire and a lack of authority. Later, when strong kingdoms emerge in Western Europe, the controversy surfaces creating church/state conflicts. Later, when strong kingdoms emerge in Western Europe, the controversy surfaces creating church/state conflicts.

28 Caesaropapism Russia established caesaropapist control over the Russian Orthodox Church in the city of Kiev. In 989 C.E., the Russian leader, Prince Vladimir, converted to Orthodox Christianity and urged all of his subjects to follow his example.

29 Church/State Relations Contd… –Pope and patriarch excommunicate each other over religious doctrines and disputes over jurisdiction. –Eastern and Western churches officially split in 1054. –West—Roman Catholic Church –East—Orthodox Church

30 Conclusion Byzantine Missionaries Convert the Slavs Byzantine Missionaries Convert the Slavs –Eastern Orthodox missionaries seek to convert the northern peoples known as the Slavs. –Missionaries create the Cyrillic alphabet—the basis for many Slavic languages. –Alphabet enables many groups to read the Bible.

31 Quiz Next week on Byzantine Empire! Study over the weekend! Next week on Byzantine Empire! Study over the weekend!

32 Activity Drawing an Icon! Drawing an Icon! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7tKe xc4wSM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7tKe xc4wSM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7tKe xc4wSM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7tKe xc4wSM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43yP MicTjW4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43yP MicTjW4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43yP MicTjW4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43yP MicTjW4

33 Quiz! Time: 15 minutes Time: 15 minutes

34 Analyze “For the west, much of the history of Islam has been obscured behind a veil of fear and misunderstanding.” What does this quote mean?

35 The Rise of Islam Mullin

36 Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula –A crossroads of three continents: Africa, Asia, Europe. –Mostly desert with a small amount of fertile land

37 Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Desert and Town Life Desert and Town Life –Bedouins, Arab nomads, thrive in the desert. –Bedouins live in clans, which give support to members. –Some Arabs settle near oases or market towns.

38 Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Crossroads of Trade and Ideas Crossroads of Trade and Ideas –Many sea and land trade routes pass through Arabia. –Trade extends to the Byzantine and Sassanid empires to the north.

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40 Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Mecca Mecca –Pilgrims come to Mecca to worship at the Ka’aba, an ancient shrine. –Arabs associate shrine with Hebrew prophet Abraham and monotheism. –Most Arabs believe in one God—Allah in Arabic

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42 The Prophet Muhammad Early Life Early Life –Around A.D. 570 Muhammad is born into a powerful Meccan clan. –He becomes a trader, and marries a wealthy businesswoman, Khadijah.

43 The Prophet Muhammad Revelations Revelations –By age 40, Muhammad spends much time in prayer and meditation –He claims to hear the angel Gabriel tell him he is a messenger of Allah. –Muhammad found the religion of Islam— meaning “submission to the will of Allah” –Many join him and become Muslim—meaning “one who has submitted.”

44 The Prophet Muhammad The Hijrah The Hijrah –Muhammad’s followers are attacked; together they leave Mecca in 622. –Hijrah was the Muslim migration from Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina).

45 The Prophet Muhammad The Hijrah (continued) The Hijrah (continued) –Muhammad attracts many more followers and becomes a great leader.  Political leader—joins Jews and Arabs of Medina in a single community.  Religious leader—draws more converts to Islam.  Military leader—tackles growing hostilities between Mecca and Medina

46 Activity Create a timeline comparing Muhammad's life from 570 (Muhammad's birth) to 632 (Muhammad's death) with other events that were occurring at the same time outside of the Arabian Peninsula. These other events should be related to another person, another culture, or another geographic region. Plot the events near the appropriate dates on the timeline. Summarize the events in your own words. Have a minimum of eight events on each portion of the timeline. (Eight for Muhammad, and eight for the other person, culture or geographic region.) Create three visuals for events relating to Muhammad, and three for the other portion of the timeline. The visuals need to show a clear connection to the events they represent. Use color and place visuals close to the events on the timeline.

47 Example

48 The Prophet Muhammad Returning to Mecca Returning to Mecca –In 630, Muhammad and 10,000 followers return to Mecca –Meccan leaders surrender. –Muhammad destroys idols in the Ka’aba. –Meccans convert to Islam. –Muhammad unifies Arabian Peninsula.

49 The Beliefs and Practices of Islam Islam Islam –The main teaching of Islam is that there is only one god, Allah. –People are responsible for their own actions; there is good and evil. –Islamic monument in Jerusalem—Dome of the Rock.  It is the oldest existing Islamic building in the world.  Muslims believe Muhammad rose to heaven here to learn Allah’s will.  Jews believe Abraham was prepared to sacrifice son Isaac at that same site.

50 The Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

51 Exterior detail of the Dome of the Rock

52 Dome of the Rock viewed through the Old City’s “Cotton Gate”.

53 Panoramic view of Jerusalem with the Dome of the Rock visible.

54 ISLAM

55 The Beliefs and Practices of Islam The Five Pillars: Muslims must carry out these five duties. The Five Pillars: Muslims must carry out these five duties. –Statement of Faith to Allah and to Muhammad as his prophet. –Prayer five times a day. Muslims may use the mosque for this (an Islamic house of worship). Prayer five times a dayPrayer five times a day –Giving alms, or money for the poor. –Fasting between dawn and sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. –Performing the hajj—pilgrimage to Mecca—at least once in a lifetime.

56 The Beliefs and Practices of Islam Sources of Authority Sources of Authority –Original source of authority for Muslims is Allah. –Qur’an (Koran)—holy book, contains revelations Muhammad claims to have received from Allah. –Muslims follow Sunna—Muhammad’s example for proper living. –Guidance of the Qur’an and Sunna are assembled in a body of law called shari’a.

57 The first verses of the first Sura Al- Fatiha (meaning “The Opener”) from the Qur’an done in beautiful calligraphy and geometric art.

58 Beautifully decorated Qur’an cover.

59 Interlinear edition of the Qur’an with a Persian translation underneath.

60 The Beliefs and Practices of Islam Links to Judaism and Christianity Links to Judaism and Christianity –Muslims believe Allah is the same God worshiped by Christians and Jews. –Muslims believe the Qur’an, Gospels, and Torah contain God’s will as revealed through others. –Muslims, Christians, and Jews trace their roots to Abraham. –All three religions believe in heaven, hell, and a day of judgment. day of judgmentday of judgment –Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance.

61 Activity Part 1: Monotheistic Religions Chart Part 1: Monotheistic Religions Chart Part 2: Islam Vocabulary (Matching) Part 2: Islam Vocabulary (Matching) Part 3: Quiz Corrections Part 3: Quiz Corrections

62 Islam Expansion In spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims create a huge empire that includes land on three continents.

63 Vocabulary caliph Highest political and religious leader in a Muslim government Umayyads Dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from A.D. 661 to 750 Shi ’ a Branch of Islam whose members believe the first four caliphs are the rightful successors of Muhammad Sunni Branch of Islam whose members believe Ali and his descendants are the rightful successors of Muhammad

64 Vocabulary Sufi Muslim who tries to achieve direct contact with God Abbasids Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258 al-Andalus Muslim-ruled area in what is now Spain Fatimid Member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad ’ s daughter Fatima

65 Muhammad ’ s Successors Spread Islam A New Leader A New Leader –In 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect Abu- Bakr to be the first caliph. –Caliph—title for a Muslim leader—means “ successor ” or “ deputy.

66 Muhammad ’ s Successors Spread Islam “ Rightly Guided ” Caliphs “ Rightly Guided ” Caliphs –The first four caliphs are guided by the Qur ’ an and Muhammad ’ s actions. –Jihad—an armed struggle against unbelievers—is used to expand Islam. –Muslims control all of Arabia, and armies conquer Syria and lower Egypt. –By 750, the Muslim empire stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River.

67 Muhammad ’ s Successors Spread Islam Reasons for Success Reasons for Success –Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded. –Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict. –Persecuted citizens of these empires welcome Islam. –People are attracted to Islam ’ s offer of equality and hope.

68 Muhammad ’ s Successors Spread Islam Treatment of Conquered Peoples Treatment of Conquered Peoples –Muslim invaders tolerate other religions. –Christians and Jews receive special consideration as “ people of the book. ”

69 From 632 to 750, highly mobile troops mounted on camels were successful in conquering lands in the name of Allah.

70 Activity What does “jihad” mean for Muslims? What does “jihad” mean for Muslims? What does “infidel” mean for Muslims? What does “infidel” mean for Muslims? What does “jihad” mean in today’s world? What does “jihad” mean in today’s world? Why is “jihad” so controversial for everyone? Why is “jihad” so controversial for everyone? Research the answers to these 4 questions and then write 3 paragraphs explaining the answers to these three questions. Research the answers to these 4 questions and then write 3 paragraphs explaining the answers to these three questions.

71 Objective TELL ME WHY I SHOULD CARE ABOUT JIHAD IN YOUR ESSAY. TELL ME WHY I SHOULD CARE ABOUT JIHAD IN YOUR ESSAY.

72 Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzCAP JDAnQA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzCAP JDAnQA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzCAP JDAnQA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzCAP JDAnQA

73 Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Rise of the Umayyads Rise of the Umayyads –Struggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliph –A wealthy family, the Umayyads, take power and move the capital to Damascus.

74 Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Sunni—Shi ’ a Split Sunni—Shi ’ a Split –Shi ’ a— “ party ” of Ali—believe the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad. –Sunni—followers of Muhammad ’ s example—supported the Umayyads. –Sufi followers pursue life of poverty and spirituality. They reject the Umayyads. –In 750, a rebel group—the Abbasids—topple the Umayyads.

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76 Control Extends Over Three-Continents Fall of the Umayyads Fall of the Umayyads –Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman –He flees to Spain and establishes the Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus. –al-Andalus is a Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans.

77 Control Extends Over Three-Continents Abbasids Consolidate Power Abbasids Consolidate Power –In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Bagdad. –Location provides access to trade goods, gold, and information. –Abbasids develop a strong bureaucracy to manage empire.

78 Control Extends Over Three-Continents Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands –Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi ’ a Muslims form new caliphate –Fatimid caliphate—claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad.

79 Control Extends Over Three-Continents Muslim Trade Network Muslim Trade Network –Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe –Muslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks. –Cordoba, in al-Andalus, is a dazzling center of Muslim cutlure.

80 Conclusion Remains the most powerful empire until the Mongols in East Asia begin to take over and Europe begins to transform from a Medieval to a Renaissance/humanist society. Remains the most powerful empire until the Mongols in East Asia begin to take over and Europe begins to transform from a Medieval to a Renaissance/humanist society.

81 Activity Compare and Contrast Shi’ites and Sunnies. Compare and Contrast Shi’ites and Sunnies. –1. Read the article –2. Complete Venn Diagram

82 Activity-2 paragraph response 1. Why do you think people get so confused about Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims? Do stereotypes play a role in this at all? 1. Why do you think people get so confused about Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims? Do stereotypes play a role in this at all? 2. How did the loss of the caliphate affect Islam? How is understanding the importance of the caliphate and its end important for understanding Islamic leadership in the modern world? 2. How did the loss of the caliphate affect Islam? How is understanding the importance of the caliphate and its end important for understanding Islamic leadership in the modern world?

83 Sources http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/staff/hermans enjoel/apmuseum/stellmachermarnocha/m ultiple_choice_quiz.htm http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/staff/hermans enjoel/apmuseum/stellmachermarnocha/m ultiple_choice_quiz.htm


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