2Vernacular - the everyday language people speak in a region Leonardo da Vinci - great Italian Renaissance scientist, inventor, and artist
33) humanism - the belief the individual and human society and important 4) William Shakespeare - great English Renaissance playwright
45) Johannes Gutenberg developed the printing press 6) Peasants who were hired by merchants to make goods in their homes were part of a system called the cottage industry.
57) Columbus believed that he had been exploring the coast of Asia instead of the Americas. 8) The dome of Florence’s cathedral was a great engineering feat at the time.
69) Native Americans who ruled the empire in Peru - Inca 10) Catholic missionaries who taught Christianity to Native Americans - Jesuits
711) a fur-trading post established by Samuel de Champlain in New France - Quebec
812) circumnavigate - to go completely around something, such as the world 13) Treaty of Tordesillas - an agreement that divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal
914) tried to make England a catholic country - Mary I 15) a time of rebirth of interest in art and learning in Europe - Renaissance
1016) English playwright who wrote tragedies and comedies - William Shakespeare 17) an artistic technique using light and shadows to soften edges - chiaroscuro
1118) Became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 - Charles V 19) Famous medieval scholar of ancient Roman writers - Petrarch
1220) outlawed freedom of religion in France -Catherine de’ Medici 21) founded the Jesuits - Ignatius of Loyola
1322) fleet defeated by the English in 1588 - Spanish Armada 23) a belief that the outcomes of people’s lives are planned in advance by God - predestination
1424) John Calvin spread the idea of Protestantism across Northern Europe. 25) Indulgence - certificate that granted pardon for sins
1526) belief that God has already decided who will go to heaven and who will not - predestination
1627) the young monk who challenged the Roman Catholic Church, eventually starting a new religion - John Calvin
1728) The belief that led to protestantism is reformation. 29) Religious court that tried and punished people for heresy - Spanish Inquisition
1830) A special school for training and educating priests is called seminary. 31) Wealthy French Protestants who followed the teaching of John Calvin - Huguenots
1932) Tried to end conflict between Catholics and Protestants after becoming king of France - Henry of Navarre
2033) The Protestant queen who became one of the greatest rulers in English history - Elizabeth I 34) Who wrote the famous novel Don Quixote? Miguel de Cervantes
2135) This famous Renaissance artist painted the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican in Rome. Michelangelo
2236) What Renaissance invention aided the spread of ideas 36) What Renaissance invention aided the spread of ideas? the printing press37) Who sailed around the world in 1520? Magellan
2338) Why are preachers of indulgences in error 38) Why are preachers of indulgences in error? They teach that indulgences can free people of punishment for their sins.
2439) How was Francisco Pizarro rewarded by the Spanish king for the downfall of the Inca? The king granted him governorship of Peru.
2540) Whom did Renaissance humanists study to increase their knowledge of different topics through reason? the Romans and Greeks
2641) Columbus believed that if he sailed west, he would eventually reach Asia. 42) HOw did Calvinism affect society? People worked hard and behaved well.
2743) List two reasons why geography helped Italian trade flourish, or succeed. Italy is a long, narrow peninsula, which allowed many cities to be port cities.Italy is located in the middle of the Mediterranean world with easy access to many trade regions.
2844) The humanist clergyman Desiderius Erasmus criticized Church corruption. 45) Gutenberg’s press helped spread ideas by making books available to more people.
2946) How did the Crusades affect Italian trade 46) How did the Crusades affect Italian trade? They put Italian merchants in contact with Arab merchants.
3047) Who inspired many poor Spanish nobles to become conquistadors 47) Who inspired many poor Spanish nobles to become conquistadors? Christopher Columbus48) The blending of Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in a new culture.
3149) Which contributed to Protestantism’s success 49) Which contributed to Protestantism’s success? Some kings and princes supported it.
3250) During the 1600’s, the English government was interested in setting up fur-trading posts in North America. False51) Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, honored Pizarro’s request that he give up his gods. False