Presentation on theme: "The Islamic Empire How Islam led the Arab tribes to unite as one people."— Presentation transcript:
The Islamic Empire How Islam led the Arab tribes to unite as one people.
Uniting the People Before the advent of Islam, most Arabs belonged to rival clans which raided caravans, villages, and cities to get the food, wealth, and goods they needed. After the coming of Islam, the idea of one community (Ummah) began to bring about the cooperation between groups rather than competitive life styles.
Factors of Unification 1.Weak Neighbors: Both the Byzantine and Persian Empires were weakened from previous battles. Their infrastructures for food, commerce, and government were not functioning outside of Alexandria, Constantinople, and Antioch. 2.Angry Conquered People: Many people who were conquered by the Byzantines (ex: Egyptians ) felt they had been persecuted and welcomed Arab armies in hopes of better treatment.
Arab Rulers Arab Muslims were to be both the upper class, the rulers, and members of the army. After conquering cities like; Alexandria, Babylon, and Kufah in Iraq, they built military camps outside the cities and govern from there. Christians and Jews would pay taxes, Muslims would not. The empire was governed by Muslims but tax collecting and other organizational duties were done by Jews and Christians.
Great Success! Over time, the formerly impoverished Arabs were now master of an empire. Benefits: i.Increased wealth ii.Sufficient food supplies iii.Better education iv.Better health
How Did Life Change? Arabs began to leave Arabia and settle in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Cyprus. Arabs inter-married with non-Arabs. Utilized foreign methods of building, government, record keeping, shipbuilding, sailing, along with academics. Persian styles of dress, poetry, literature, and language were incorporated into Arab culture.
Early Muslim Leaders C.E. After the Prophets death in 632 C.E., the Muslim community that was called the Ummah needed a leader. The successor to the Prophet was called the Caliph. The selection process for the successor was the cause of great disagreement.
Abu Bakr 632 – 634 C.E. Abu Bakr was chosen by the ummah to be the first caliph. Fought the Riddah Wars against the Apostasy, uniting the Arab Peninsula under Islam and the caliph. A term generally employed to describe the formal abandonment or renunciation of one's religion.
Omar 634 – 644 C.E. Omar lived a simple life in Medina while ruling the new Islamic Empire. Scholars report that he repaired his own clothing, ate simple meals of dates and bread. He was killed by a Persian Christian slave. Damascus fell in 336 C.E. and after a prolonged siege, Muslims took Jerusalem in 637 C.E.. Re-claimed the area of the al-Aqsa mosque (Noble Sanctuary where the Prophet completed his “night journey”).
Osman(Uthman) 664 – 656 C.E. As he was a member of the Quraysh tribe, his election as caliph was controversial. This scandal followed as he promoted family members, increased taxation, ignored fellow Muslims and became very wealthy. Ruled when Persia was conquered. Cyprus was added to the empire, and the Muslim fleet sailed on Constantinople. Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Qur'an.
Ali 656 – 661 C.E. A cousin of the Prophet, Ali was the first leader of the Shia. While support for Ali was not unanimous, he was chosen as Caliph. His nephew, Muawiya, opposed Ali’s authority and Ali was murdered at Kufah in 661 C.E. Picture of the swearing of allegiance to Ali at Kufah in the seventh century following the murder of 'Uthman, from a late-16th century Turkish manuscript on the martyrdom of Husayn.
Ummayad Caliphate 661 – 750 C.E. The First Ummayad Ruler: was Muawiya, who ruled until 680C.E. He moved the Islamic capital to Damascus from Medina. Major Accomplishments: Under his rule, the Islamic Empire expanded across North Africa, most of the Middle East, and into Asia to the borders of China. Built several important mosques; Ummayad in Damascus C.E. and Dome of the Rock and the Al-Asqa Mosque.
The Dome of the Rock This holy mosque was built in Jerusalem from C.E. After the Kaaba, the Dome of the Rock is considered the oldest building in Islam. The Dome of Rock houses the “Foundation Stone” as well as the “Holy of Holies” This was the original direction to which Muslims prayed prior to Muhammad (pbuh) switching the Qiblah to Mecca
Problems 1.The opulent life style of the Ummayads led to criticism for living a life considered too lavish for pious, religious figures. They were accused of being like the Byzantines. 2.As Christians and Jews converted to Islam, the tax based began to shrink. This led to financial difficulties.
Islam in Spain & Europe The age of Muslim expansion was the result of firm leadership, a unifying message (Islam), and successful military campaigns. With The Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Asia now Islamic regions, it was time to challenge for Europe.
On April 30th of 711C.E., The Berber and Moorish leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed at Gibraltar and by the end of the campaign and the defeat of the Goth King Roderick most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Islamic rule. The Berbers are Muslims from North Africa. The Moors is a term used to describe the Arab and non- Arab (Berber) invaders. The Goths are the (Visigoths) of Roman Empire fame.
The Islamic Empire around C.E.
October 10, 732 C.E. marks the conclusion of the Battle of Tours which pitted Charles “The Hammer” Martel vs. Abd ar-Rahman ibn- Abdallah for the control of modern France. This was arguably one of the most decisive battles in all of history. Not only did this prove to be an extremely decisive battle for the Christians, but the Battle of Tours is considered the high water mark of the Moslem invasion of Western Europe.
Abbasid Caliphate 750 – 1258 C.E. The Abbasids were from the former Persian Empire. Unlike the Ummayads, they shared blood ties to the Prophet. The Abbasid opposition to the Ummayads grew until 750 C.E. when they were powerful enough to enter into conflict with the Ummayads. A civil war broke out and the Ummayads were executed (although some continued to rule in Spain). The Abbasids ruled from Baghdad and ushered in the “Islamic Golden Age”. Samara Mosque 847 C.E.
Major Achievements of the Abbasids House of Wisdom was built by Caliph al-Rashid in 830 C.E. in Baghdad. It attracted scholars from around the known world. Medicine, literature, religion, history, geography, science, and art were popular courses. This focus on learning made Baghdad the most important center of learning in the world.
Social Mobility was allowed and encouraged under the Abbasid Caliphate. Slaves could buy their freedom, convert and receive freedom for their children. Merchants could trade freely and enjoy their profits. Women had the right to divorce, own businesses, and had a degree of independence not shared by many women in the non-Islamic world.
3. Economy a.Trade: Routes were safe and a variety of goods moved along the ‘silk road’ from China into the Caliphate and beyond. These routes were protected by Abbasid strength. b.Banking: The first banks were established. Checks could be written and honored in different locations. People could save money or even finance a trade caravan. c.Manufacturing: Local manufacturing began to increase as new methods from other regions were incorporated into local production.
Major Trade Routes in the Time of the Islamic Empire The trade routes brought people from many diverse cultures together in a mix of culture and economics.
Intellectual Developments Widespread Education: Many citizens in the Abbasid Caliphate received an education. With an importance placed on understanding the Quran, literacy became important. Once learned, the ability to read led many people to become interested in all knowledge. Centers of learning were established in Cordoba, Cairo, Timbuktu, Bukhara, and Baghdad.
Philosophy: from ancient Greece and Rome was translated into Arabic where they were then incorporated into Islamic philosophy. Publications during this period would go on to influence Western philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas. Mathematics: Algebra was advanced by Persian scientist Muhammad ibn Mūsā al- Khwārizmī during this time in his landmark text, ”Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala”
Medicine: Abbasid Muslims studied texts from all over the known world and experimented with various treatments were developed. Differentiations between smallpox and measles were identified and significant advances were made in anatomy.
Local Arab Caravan Routes. The great caravan trade routes rivaled today’s distribution channels. With many posts established along the routes, trade moved efficiently.
Point of View This cartoon could be titled; “The Cultural Battle for Tours.” What assumptions does it make? What views are represented? What might it look like drawn from the opposite perspective? ://www.laughyourheadoff.org