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Politics of the Roaring Twenties

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1 Politics of the Roaring Twenties
Would you strike and risk your family’s welfare?

2 Examine the Issues Do city workers have a responsibility not to go on strike? Should the government intervene in disputes between labor and business? Does the success of a strike depend on you?

3 PART I: America Struggles with Postwar Issues
Main idea A desire for normality (NORMALCY- Harding Adm) after the war and a fear of communism (RED SCARE) and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism. Why it Matters Today Americans today continue to debate political isolationism and immigration today.

4 Postwar Trends- home from WWI
Debate over the League of Nations had deeply divided America. (Wilson’s 14th PT) Returning soldiers faced unemployment. Cost of living had doubled. Nativism or prejudice against foreign-born people, swept America. Isolationism-a policy of pulling away from the involvement in world affairs.


6 Fear of Communism One threat to American life was communism-a belief in a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship.


8 Limiting Immigration “Keep America for Americans”
Immigrants worked for less money.

9 A Time of Labor Unrest Government wouldn’t allow for strikes during the war. ,000 strikes. Three strikes in particular grabbed public attention.

10 Labor Movement Loses Appeal
Union membership dropped in the 20’s. Reasons for decline: Immigrants worked in poor conditions Immigrants didn’t speak English Farmers relied on themselves Unions excluded African Americans

11 Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues Review
Explain how the Red Scare, the Sacco and Vanzetti case, and the rise of the KKK reflected concerns held by many Americans. All three events reflected fear of immigrants and radical movements. Describe the primary goal of the Immigration Quota System established in 1921. The goal of the quota system was to reduce European immigration to the U.S.

12 PART II: The Harding “Normalcy” Presidency
Main Idea The Harding administration appealed to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but resulted in scandal. Why it Matters Today The government must guard against scandal and corruption to merit public trust.

13 One American’s Story Warren G. Harding (29th) was described as a good-natured man who “looked like a president ought to look.” Ohio Gang- brought his “friends” from his home state of OHIO with him into political offices they were not “qualified or prepared” to run correctly…troubled waters!!!!!!

14 Harding Struggles for Peace
After WWI, problems surfaced relating to arms control, war debts, and the reconstruction of war-torn countries so... Harding invited several major powers to Washington Naval Conference. Sec. of State- Charles Evans Hughes- suggest that the five major powers disarm. 1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact- NO MORE WAR was an international policy (made WAR ILLEGAL).

15 Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928

16 Fordney-McCumber Tariff
As a result of the war, Americans had two main concerns: First, they wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Second, many industries wanted to preserve the benefits of the increased wartime demand.

17 High Tariffs and Reparations
Britain and France looked for ways to pay back $10 billion to the U.S. they had “borrowed for WWI” Two way they could pay back: Selling goods to the U.S. Collecting reparations from Germany (**33 BILLION OWED**) 1922-Fordney-McCumber Tariff- Congress raised taxes on imports to 60%!!!!!!!!! Germany defaulted on loans…SO… U.S. gives $2.5 billion to Germany so they can pay Britain & France. Dawes Plan- U.S. bankers would loan money to Germany to pay back Britain and France. In essence, U.S. was repaid with their own money

18 Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration

19 Teapot Dome Scandal

20 The Harding Presidency
S E C T I O N 2 The Harding Presidency HOME ASSESSMENT 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five significant events from this section and their effects. Events Effects Kellog-Briand Pact Naval disarmament Fordney McCumber Tariff Raised tariffs to highest level Dawes Plan U.S. loans to Germany repay reparations Quota Act Immigration restricted Teapot Dome scandal Government corruption continued . . .

21 The Harding Presidency Review
What did Harding want to do to return America to “normalcy”? Harding wanted to get America back to the simpler days before the Progressive Era reforms. Summarize the Teapot Dome scandal. The scandal was about corruption in the leasing of government of reserves to private companies; one cabinet member received bonds, cash, and ranches in exchange for oil contracts… goes all the way up to SEC of INTERIOR ALBERT B. FALL Harding dies of heart attack/stroke soon after this breaks, summer 1923…VP Coolidge becomes new president!

22 PART III: The Business of America
Main Idea Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920’s as America’s standard of living soared. Why it Matters Today Business, technological, and social developments of the 1920’s launched the era of modern consumerism.

23 Calvin Coolidge “The chief business of the American people is business”

24 American Industries Flourish
The new president, Calvin Coolidge (30th), fit into pro-business spirit of the 1920’s very well. Coolidge favored government policies that would keep taxes down and business profits up. Limited government interference: LASSAIZE FAIRE…leave business ONLY!.

25 Route 66 1916- Federal-Aid Road Act sets up highway program with federal gov’t paying half the cost of states’ highway construction 1921- Highway construction in 11 western states begins under administration of Bureau of Public Roads 1926- US Highway 66, ran 2,448 miles from Chicago to Los Angeles, CA, is established

26 America’s Standard of Living Soars
Between the years , Americans prospered. Annual income rose from $522 to $705 People spent money, advertising changes to persuade people to buy their products


28 A Superficial Prosperity
During the 1920’s, most Americans believed prosperity would go on forever.

29 The Business of America Review
How did changes in technology in the 1920’s influence American life? The automobile prompted the building of new roads, gave people more mobility, and created jobs; airplanes improved transportation and communication; electrical appliances freed up time for other activities. What evidence suggests that the prosperity of the 1920’s was not on a firm foundation? The income gap between workers and managers was growing; some industries were stagnant or losing money; people were increasing their debt.

30 The Business of America
S E C T I O N 3 The Business of America GRAPH HOME ASSESSMENT 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List events that illustrate the technological and business changes of the 1920s. Development of the automobile industry Use of the installment plan Technology & Business Changes of the 1920s Expansion of the airline industry Spread of modern advertising Invention of new electrical appliances continued . . .

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