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Politics of the Roaring Twenties Would you strike and risk your family’s welfare?

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Presentation on theme: "Politics of the Roaring Twenties Would you strike and risk your family’s welfare?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics of the Roaring Twenties Would you strike and risk your family’s welfare?

2 Examine the Issues Do city workers have a responsibility not to go on strike? Should the government intervene in disputes between labor and business? Does the success of a strike depend on you?

3 PART I: America Struggles with Postwar Issues Main idea A desire for normality (NORMALCY- Harding Adm) after the war and a fear of communism (RED SCARE) and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism. Why it Matters Today Americans today continue to debate political isolationism and immigration today.

4 Postwar Trends- home from WWI Debate over the League of Nations had deeply divided America. (Wilson’s 14 th PT) Returning soldiers faced unemployment. Cost of living had doubled. Nativism or prejudice against foreign-born people, swept America. Isolationism-a policy of pulling away from the involvement in world affairs.


6 Fear of Communism One threat to American life was communism-a belief in a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship. Fear of Communism The Red Scare Bolsheviks Revolution IWW The Palmer Raids A. Mitchell Palmer J. Edgar Hoover Anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti May 1920-arrested & charged Executed Aug. 23, 1927


8 Limiting Immigration “Keep America for Americans” Immigrants worked for less money. Limiting Immigration Klan Rises Again million Quota System Emergency Quota Act-1921 Quota system

9 A Time of Labor Unrest Government wouldn’t allow for strikes during the war ,000 strikes. Three strikes in particular grabbed public attention. STRIKES Boston Police Strike Steel Mill Strike Coal Miners’ Strike

10 Labor Movement Loses Appeal Union membership dropped in the 20’s. Reasons for decline: Immigrants worked in poor conditions Immigrants didn’t speak English Farmers relied on themselves Unions excluded African Americans

11 Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues Review Explain how the Red Scare, the Sacco and Vanzetti case, and the rise of the KKK reflected concerns held by many Americans. All three events reflected fear of immigrants and radical movements. Describe the primary goal of the Immigration Quota System established in The goal of the quota system was to reduce European immigration to the U.S.

12 PART II: The Harding “Normalcy” Presidency Main Idea The Harding administration appealed to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but resulted in scandal. Why it Matters Today The government must guard against scandal and corruption to merit public trust.

13 One American’s Story Warren G. Harding (29 th ) was described as a good-natured man who “looked like a president ought to look.” Ohio Gang- brought his “friends” from his home state of OHIO with him into political offices they were not “qualified or prepared” to run correctly…troubled waters!!!!!!

14 Harding Struggles for Peace After WWI, problems surfaced relating to arms control, war debts, and the reconstruction of war- torn countries so... Harding invited several major powers to Washington Naval Conference. Sec. of State- Charles Evans Hughes- suggest that the five major powers disarm Kellogg-Briand Pact- NO MORE WAR was an international policy (made WAR ILLEGAL).

15 Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928

16 Fordney-McCumber Tariff As a result of the war, Americans had two main concerns: First, they wanted to ensure economic self- sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Second, many industries wanted to preserve the benefits of the increased wartime demand.

17 High Tariffs and Reparations Britain and France looked for ways to pay back $10 billion to the U.S. they had “borrowed for WWI” Two way they could pay back: Selling goods to the U.S. Collecting reparations from Germany (**33 BILLION OWED**) 1922-Fordney-McCumber Tariff- Congress raised taxes on imports to 60%!!!!!!!!! Germany defaulted on loans…SO… U.S. gives $2.5 billion to Germany so they can pay Britain & France. Dawes Plan- U.S. bankers would loan money to Germany to pay back Britain and France. In essence, U.S. was repaid with their own money

18 Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Harding Administration Harding’s Cabinet Ohio Gang Scandal’s & Harding Charles Forbes Col. Thomas Miller Teapot Dome Scandal Teapot, Wy Oil rich lands Albert Fall

19 Teapot Dome Scandal

20 2 The Harding Presidency 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five significant events from this section and their effects. continued... HOME ASSESSMENT Fordney McCumber Tariff Naval disarmament Raised tariffs to highest level U.S. loans to Germany repay reparations Kellog-Briand Pact Dawes Plan Events Effects Quota Act Immigration restricted Teapot Dome scandal Government corruption

21 The Harding Presidency Review What did Harding want to do to return America to “normalcy”? Harding wanted to get America back to the simpler days before the Progressive Era reforms. Summarize the Teapot Dome scandal. The scandal was about corruption in the leasing of government of reserves to private companies; one cabinet member received bonds, cash, and ranches in exchange for oil contracts… goes all the way up to SEC of INTERIOR ALBERT B. FALL Harding dies of heart attack/stroke soon after this breaks, summer 1923…VP Coolidge becomes new president!

22 PART III: The Business of America Main Idea Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920’s as America’s standard of living soared. Why it Matters Today Business, technological, and social developments of the 1920’s launched the era of modern consumerism.

23 Calvin Coolidge “The chief business of the American people is business”

24 American Industries Flourish The new president, Calvin Coolidge (30 th ), fit into pro-business spirit of the 1920’s very well. Coolidge favored government policies that would keep taxes down and business profits up. Limited government interference: LASSAIZE FAIRE…leave business ONLY!. Industries Flourish Impact of the Automobile Paved Roads Route 66 1 st traffic signal- Detroit Urban Sprawl Airplane Industry Mail carriers Charles Lindbergh Amelia Earhart Pan American Airways

25 Route Federal-Aid Road Act sets up highway program with federal gov’t paying half the cost of states’ highway construction Highway construction in 11 western states begins under administration of Bureau of Public Roads US Highway 66, ran 2,448 miles from Chicago to Los Angeles, CA, is established

26 America’s Standard of Living Soars Between the years , Americans prospered. Annual income rose from $522 to $705 People spent money, advertising changes to persuade people to buy their products Electrical Conveniences Modern Advertising


28 A Superficial Prosperity During the 1920’s, most Americans believed prosperity would go on forever. Prosperity Great Quantities Of Food Iron & Railroads Farmer Suffered Buying on Credit Installment Plan

29 The Business of America Review How did changes in technology in the 1920’s influence American life? The automobile prompted the building of new roads, gave people more mobility, and created jobs; airplanes improved transportation and communication; electrical appliances freed up time for other activities. What evidence suggests that the prosperity of the 1920’s was not on a firm foundation? The income gap between workers and managers was growing; some industries were stagnant or losing money; people were increasing their debt.

30 3 The Business of America 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List events that illustrate the technological and business changes of the 1920s. continued... Technology & Business Changes of the 1920s HOME ASSESSMENT Development of the automobile industry Use of the installment plan Expansion of the airline industry Spread of modern advertising GRAPH Invention of new electrical appliances

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