2 AgendaEssential Question – What are the legacies of the Muslim Golden Age?Goals - Students will be able to list the achievements of the Golden Age of IslamTasksPlease Do Now: Art Pre Analysis Worksheet-Left ColumnClear desks/phones for Map QuizPower Point Presentation of Golden AgePost AnalysisEmpire of Faith Part 2HomeworkSection 11.2 Two-column notes & Guided Reading due lesson 4Attendance/art analysis – 10 minQuiz – 15 minPower Point – 20 minPost analysis – 10 minVideo – 10 min
3 Type of Source: Is it a document, artifact, or piece of art Type of Source: Is it a document, artifact, or piece of art? Primary or secondary source? Description: What do you see? Date, creator, intended audience, purpose: Provide an educated guess with reasons why you think this way, ie, evidence from your observation. What question(s) are you left with?
4 AbbassidsOverthrew Umayyads in 750 by murdering all of them at a dinner banquetCreated central bureaucracy to governMoved capital to Baghdad, IraqCaliph Harun al-RashidGolden Age of IslamUmayyads were accused of being more concerned with secular (worldly) concerns than spiritual ones. Lifestyle was too lavish (extravagant).Review Bureaucracy - a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.Baghdad grew larger than Constantinople in size and wealthCultural center; scholars from all over the empire came to share ideas“City of Peace”Islam was becoming a universal religion (not just for Arabs). Earlier preferential treatment of Arabs diminished under the Abbassids.Al-Rashid was model ruler and supporter of the arts who brought the Golden Age of Islam.“City of Peace” - Baghdad’s circular design
5 Islam remained a strong unifier Abbassid DeclineFragmented into independent dynastiesExternal threats fromTurks & MongolsEuropean Christian Crusaders1099 Siege on JerusalemIslam remained a strong unifierUmayyads were the last to control a centralized empire. Under the Abbassids, the empire fragmented politically but remained united under Islam.Spain (Umayyads)Egypt (Fatimids)Mongols & Turks from Central AsiaCrusaders: Christians took Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099 but Saladin regained it in 1187;Crusader – soldier of the Holy Wars to take over Holy Land from Muslims
6 Abbassid DeclineLike the Song Dynasty in China, the Abbassid dynasty was smaller but reached it’s height in education, arts, and technology.Map on the left shows the Abbassid and Umayyad dynasties during the 9th century.Map on the right shows how it fragmented into smaller dynasties from the end of the 9th to the end of the tenth centuries.
7 Golden Age 700s-1200sIslam absorbed traditions from many cultures resulting in a vital new civilizationInternational trade networkPaper/booksArabic numeralsSugarBanks with sakks (checks)People united by religion and languageAcceptance of all peopleStability brought increased trade and a sharing of ideas/products.Paper from China; numbers and sugar from IndiaAlso, increased trade brought new ways of doing business such as credit, banks, partnerships, and checks or sakks.4 Social classes - Muslims by birth, converts, “Protected People” (Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians had highest tax rate,) slaves (no Muslims)Social Mobility: people could improve their status in societyEven slaves who gained freedom held high government positionsFemale slaves who married master gained freedom, as did children of converts and those who purchased their freedom
8 Golden Age 700s-1200s Manufacturing Guilds Regulated prices, weights, and measuresDetermined methods of production and quality controlSteel swords, leather goods, cotton textiles, carpets, glassware, furniture, tapestriesHow do you interpret this quote from Muhammad: “The honest, truthful Muslim merchant will stand with the martyrs on the Day of Judgment”?Merchants were honored, unlike in China, where they were at the lowest status.Guild: Associations of the same trade
9 Golden Age 786-1258 Agriculture Massive irrigation projects Drained swamplandsGrain, olives, dates, sugar cane, cotton, dyes, herbs, fruits, vegetables, flowersNomadic herding in the desert
10 Golden AgeArtIslam prohibited the worship of idols - art could not include representations of Allah or humansAbstract and geometric patternsCalligraphy using Quran textQuran frontspiecesReligion shapes art in many civilizationsHow do you think the religion of Islam influenced these pieces of art? Prohibited worship of idols, therefore, art could not include Allah or humans.(Non-religious art sometimes included humans and animals)Arabesque, or intricate designs with curved lines based on plants/flowersMath influenced art; geometric, repeating, symmetrical patternsCalligraphers were among the most highly regarded artists in Islamic societies, and this remains the case in many places today. Their status was based on the excellence of their work, but also on the eminence of their teachers.Calligraphy stretches the limits of the written word. It also shows how Arabic script satisfied an aesthetic emphasizing the purity of linear design and its capacity to express non-verbal messages. It elevates the importance of the written word, more specifically the word of the Quran.The zoomorphic Islamic calligraphy art form is a mode of script metamorphosing into living forms which are also readable letters and of using script to delineate such forms. Usually with text from the Quran.The flexibility of the Arabic letters allow themselves to be bent and extended in a way which is impossible with other alphabets.The practice established itself only relatively late in Islamic art and developed in Ottoman Turkey, India and Qajar Iran around 1458.Frontispiece is an illustrated page opposite the title page of a book (Quran)
11 Golden Age Architecture Adapted Byzantine buildings to include Large domesMinaretsCourtyards with fountains and gardensIntricate plaster workThe Dome of the Rock, JerusalemMosque of Samarra, IraqMinarets: Towers from which the muezzin would call the faithful to prayer five times a day.Fountains were used for ritual cleansing before prayer.The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem – built in 7th century over a rock where Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven, and where Jews believe Abraham offered his son Isaac to God.
12 Miniature for The Rubaiyat Golden AgeMiniature for The RubaiyatLiteraturePoetryAl-Adawiyya – Sufi poetFirdawsi – Persian poet, The Book of KingsKhayyam – The RubaiyatThe Thousand and One NightsLong tradition of oral poetry, sometimes chanted to music, romanticizing nomadic life and chivalryChivalry - courage, honor, loyalty, and consideration for others, especially womenFirdawsi – History of Persia in poems1,001 Nights – Collection of tales such as Aladdin & His Magic Lamp, Ali Baba & the 40 Thieves, Sinbad the SailorMiniature paintings were not religious, but created to illustrate poems and literature and make them easier to understand. They were miniature so they could fit into books.May have come from Mongols. They reached their height between 13-16th centuries in Persia.
13 Rethink the following and fill in the right column… Date, creator, intended audience, purpose: Provide an educated guess with reasons why you think this way, ie, evidence from your observation. What question(s) are you left with?The art presented depicts a lion with a remarkable symmetry in the composition. It also contains beautiful stylized flower and leaf designs that are drawn from mosque tiles created during the Ottoman empire.
14 PBS Empire of Faith Part II The Spread of Islam Baghdad & House of Wisdom & Achievements 4:05-13:00