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The Root of Terrorism Today.  Three Great Religions ◦ Judaism ◦ Christianity ◦ Islam  Shared God = Shared History ◦ Yahweh = God = Allah ◦ How?

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Presentation on theme: "The Root of Terrorism Today.  Three Great Religions ◦ Judaism ◦ Christianity ◦ Islam  Shared God = Shared History ◦ Yahweh = God = Allah ◦ How?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Root of Terrorism Today

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3  Three Great Religions ◦ Judaism ◦ Christianity ◦ Islam  Shared God = Shared History ◦ Yahweh = God = Allah ◦ How?

4 Abraham Sarah Hagar Ishmael Isaac David Jesus Islam Judaism Christianity God

5  God spoke to Abraham ◦ Promised descendants would number among the stars  Descendants would inherit the Promised Land ◦ Wife, Sarah, very old ◦ Has child, Ishmael, with slave, Hagar ◦ Has child, Isaac, with Sarah ◦ Who fulfills God’s prophesy?  Descendants of Ishmael, or Isaac

6  Settled by Israelites ◦ Led by Joshua into Canaan/Judah/Israel ◦ Year – approx 1470 B.C.  Diaspora ◦ Jews leave Roman occupied Israel and settle throughout the world ◦ Year – 2 nd century AD  No homeland for 1800 years

7  Crusades ◦ Muslims vs. Christians ◦ Battle for control of Holy Land

8  Israel is home to Jerusalem ◦ Holy City for all three great religions

9  Jews ◦ Abraham prepared to offer his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ◦ Place where the Temple once stood.  Christians ◦ Important events of Jesus’ life  presented in the Temple  Found among the teachers as a 12-year-old  prayed and taught  the Dome of the Rock was actually a Christian church during 12 th century crusades

10  To Muslims ◦ Dome covers the sacred rock where Muhammad prayed and went to paradise during his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem and back on the winged steed called Al-Burak.

11  Balfour Declaration – 1917 ◦ British government viewed favourably "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" but "that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine". ◦ Establish place for Jews to live in Palestine  As long as it didn’t harm exhisiting non- Jewish communities

12  Established following WWI  Increased # of Jews in Palestine  Palestinian Arabs saw this as threat to their homeland and identity

13  Holocaust influences the UN to create Jewish homeland  1947

14  May 14, 1948 – Israel declares independence ◦ Supported by UN  May 15, 1948 ◦ Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invade Israel  Israeli Victory in December

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16  1956 – Israelis invade Sinai Peninsula ◦ Response to closing of Suez Canal ◦ Also capture Gaza strip  US and UN pressure Israel into ceasefire ◦ Israel agrees to withdraw from Egyptian territory ◦ Egypt agrees to demilitarize Sinai and grant freedom of navigation ◦ United Nations Emergency Force oversees demilitarization

17  May 19, 1967 – Egypt expels UNEF forces ◦ Deploy 100,000 troops to Sinai ◦ Close Straits of Tiran  May 30, 1967 – Jordan signs mutual defense pact with Egypt

18  June 5, 1967 – Israel attacks Egypt ◦ Israeli Air Force destroys Egyptian Air Force ◦ Turns east  Destroys air forces of Jordan, Syria, Iraq  June 10 – War ends ◦ Israel gains control of Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, E. Jerusalem, Golan Heights

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20  Black September ◦ Palestinian militant group ◦ Secular ◦ Founded in 1970

21  1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany  Sept 5 – 6, 1972 ◦ BSO murders 11 Israeli athletes and officials

22  Covert Mossad operation in response to Munich Massacre  Targeted members of Black September and the PLO they felt were responsible  Possibly lasted up to 20 years

23  1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon  April 9 – 10  Israel Defense Forces special forces units attacked PLO targets in Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon  Resulted in deaths of three high ranking PLO leaders

24  October 6 – 26, 1973 ◦ Israel vs. Egypt and Syria, supported by Arab States  Egypt and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur ◦ Holiest day in Judaism ◦ Enter Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights  Back and forth war  UN steps in and imposes ceasefire on Oct. 25

25  Arab World vindicated by success ◦ Humiliated by Six-Day War  Israel lost sense of invincibility  US increased efforts at mediation and peacemaking ◦ Led to peace process that culminates in Camp David Accords

26  Signed September 17, 1978 ◦ Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat ◦ Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin ◦ Witnessed by President Jimmy Carter

27  Culmination of 13 days of secret negotiatians  Two main agreements ◦ A Framework for Peace in the Middle East ◦ A Framework for the conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel

28  Part One ◦ Framework for negotiations to establish autonomous authority in West Bank and Gaza Strip ◦ Recognized “legitimate rights of Palestinian people”  Part Two ◦ Egyptian-Israeli relations  Part Three ◦ “Associated Principles” which would apply to relations between Israel and its Arab neighbors

29  Basis for Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979  Decided future of Sinai Peninsula ◦ Israel withdrew forces and evacuated 4500 civilians  Freedom of passage in Suez Canal  Restricted Egyptian forces in the area  United States committed several billion $ to Israel and Egypt

30  Egypt suspended by Arab League until 1989 ◦ Left power vacuum filled by Iraq and Iran  Disintegration of united Arab front against Israel  Showed negotiations w/Israel was possible  Opened door to new ways to deal with Israel ◦ Terrorist Organizations – PLO, Hamas, Hezbollah

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