ART IN THE ANCIENT WORLD SHAPES OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE CULTURE
EGYPTIAN ART – 3150 BC Most Egyptian art revolved around religious items – tombs, temples, & statuary. Huge fascination with the afterlife Main focus of “this life” was to ensure comfort in the “next life.”
EGYPTIAN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Parallel Self – known as the “ka” Ka continues to occupy body after death Used mummification process & were buried with needed supplies Mummification process was very expensive – reserved for important people such as Pharaohs Mummification process Only organ left inside the body was the heart – it was believed to contain human intelligence, not the brain. Mummy Secrets Video (2 min)
FIRST SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN King Tut’s tomb was discovered in 1922 Only one of the time that had not been pillaged – huge amounts of wealthwealth Indications he was a young pharaoh who died unexpectedly
GREEK CULTURE & ART – 900 BC More focused on the world of the living than Egyptians Primary innovation was in sculpture and sculpture methods Bronze sculpting was the primary mode of Greek artistic expression Most “Greek” sculptures we know today are actually Roman copies We see marble, traditionally were completed in bronze.bronze
POSEIDON/ZEUS Missing item in right hand Lightning bolt Trident Religious purpose Discovered in 1928 off the coast of Greece Stands 6’10” Innovation = pose Pose would have been impossible with stone
ROMAN CONSTRUCTION Early construction consisted of simple mounding and post- and-lintel construction Corbeling – transition to the arch All of these had problems bearing too much weight, and it ran the risk of collapsing
THE ROMAN ARCH Romans did little to advance visual art – stole it from the Greeks Made huge advancements in architecture – arch, vaults, concrete Stones are cut into wedges with a keystone piece at the top Video on archesarches
PONT DU GARD Located in Nimes, France Aqueduct bridge – clean water traveled 31 miles to 50,000 people daily (one hundred gallons) Built by emperor Agrippa (20-16 BCE) Still stands today
ROMANS & CONCRETE Romans did not have a convenient source of marble to construction. Experimented with mixtures to create. Concrete is a combinations of lime mortar, volcanic sand, and stone mixed with water. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the specific recipe was lost. Concrete use disappeared until the 14 th century.
THE PANTHEON Built under emperor Hadrian, but is the 3 rd version of the temple Dedicated to Roman gods Hemispheric dome set on a cylinder base Largest dome structure in Europe prior to the 20 th century. Look insideinside
LET’S WRITE! Choose 1 of the selected pieces of artwork and compose a short story inspired by it.
ARTISTIC INNOVATIONS DURING THE RENAISSANCE THE AGE OF DISCOVERY AND REBIRTH
CHANGES IN ART Change from spiritual and otherworldly religious art to actual figures in realistic landscapes. Greater focus on the human perspective. Protestant Reformation impacted Northern European art. Islamic art continued to thrive and influenced the West (Americas). Brief overview
GHENT ALTARPIECE – JAN VAN EYCK Oil Paint – new innovation Polyptychs – multiple panels (21) – contains moveable sections to correspond with the Church calendar
GHENT ALTARPIECE CONT. It was intended to be viewed both open and closed It would be closed during penitential seasons (i.e. Lent & days of the week) Broad theme of the redemption of man Closer look
RENAISSANCE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Evolving concept of the “artist” – just beginning to gain recognition. Many technological advances (scientific revolution) Printing press, nautical compass, portable clock, microscope, and screwdriver. Leonardo Da Vinci
ORNITHOPTER WINGS Taken from the Codex Atlanticus – contains over 1,000 drawings by Da Vinci. Very interested in the concept of flight. He studied birds, movement of wind, and air resistance. Designed many flying mechanisms – this one deals with flapping wings. Failure – human flight is not accomplished by flapping “wings.” Unsure if Da Vinci built working models of his sketches. Very concerned with safety.
DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAR & ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE Filippo Brunelleschi – inventor of linear perspectivelinear perspective Horizon line, vanishing point, and orthogonal lines. Atmospheric perspective (aerial perspective) – suggests depth within a painting by depicting distant objects in a softer focus with less detail and paler colors.
Painted by Raphael One of four fresco paintings created for the Vatican by Raphael. This room was used by the Pope to sign important documents – it held Pope Julius II’s personal library. The library was divided into 4 types of works: law, poetry, theology, and philosophy. The School of Athens falls under the philosophy category. Meaning of the painting (10 min.) Meaning
DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL Challenge was not to design the form itself, but how to execute the design (largest and highest dome of the time). Brunelleschi was commissioned to build the dome when the Cathedral had already been under construction for 100+ years. Two main problems: A design for the temporary wooden support (centering) needed to be developed. How to lift large amounts of sandstone and marble to the top of the dome.
DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL Brunelleschi’s plan: don’t use centering at all and use a hoist mechanism (pulled by oxen). Video
DECORATED PAGES INTENDED FOR A KORAN Innovation: Paper & Printing Press Paper developed in China (plant material). In the Islamic world papermakers used rags Koran is the most sacred text in the Muslim faith – must be handwritten Used beautiful calligraphy calligraphy