Presentation on theme: "Presidents of the 1920’s HARDING COOLIDGE HOOVER."— Presentation transcript:
Presidents of the 1920’s HARDING COOLIDGE HOOVER
Learning Target: Explain how the new Republican policies of Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover differed from those of the Progressives (Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson) Explain the results of the new Republican policies Explain American foreign policy after WWI
President #1: Warren G. Harding Year Elected: 1921 In office: 1921-1923 - died in office
Warren G. Harding Background – Born in 1865 – Blooming Grove, OH Profession – publisher – governor of Ohio – US Senate – President US Senate from 1915-1921. Horrible attendance record – missed 2/3 of votes – including the 19 th Amendment!!
Warren G. Harding Won the Presidential nomination because of political machines Election key topic = continue progressive work of Wilson, OR back to laissez-faire In the White House… as a senator, voted against Prohibition, while in office, always had bootleg booze available
“Return to Normalcy” In your own words, what does the above quote mean? America needs a rest from the deprivation of WWI and the pressure to make reforms from the Progressive Movement Want to return to the ways of the US before WWI
Warren G. Harding “Ohio Gang” – nickname given to his “pals” that Harding appointed into government positions – the cabinet Favored Big Business Had 2 long lasting affairs – the 2 nd, Nan Britton, had a daughter Died of what was believed to be a heart attack – VP Calvin Coolidge came into office
How did the “Ohio Gang,” hurt President Harding? His friends used their positions of power as a way to improve their personal lives
TEAPOT DOME SCANDEL Teapot Dome – Harding proved to be a poor leader – cabinet essentially ran office – became known as the “Ohio Gang.” TEApot Dome Oilfield in Wyoming – secretary of interior Albert B. Fall – rented government lands to Oil Companies in return for personal loans and gifts. US holding lands as oil reserves for the US Navy. Fall leased lands to two oil companies – 1. Mammoth Oil Company 2. Pan American Petroleum Company. Fall received $404,000 in loans and gifts.
What was the Teapot Dome Scandal? Harding’s Sec. Of Interior leased gov’t oil fields in exchange for money & bribes
President #2 – Calvin Coolidge Year Inaugurated – 1923 – VP to Harding, took office after death. Ran for president in 1924 In Office: 1923-1928
Calvin Coolidge Background – from Vermont – became governor of Massachusetts Wanted to preserve the old moral and economic principles of the US Policies = 1. Isolation in foreign policy 2. Tax cuts 3. Limited aid to farmers Known as being the “most negative and remote of presidents, and the most accessible.”
Calvin Coolidge Silent Cal – because he said almost nothing during interviews – “yes,” and “no” Elected for 1924 term, did not run in 1928
Coolidge – Policies towards Business Gave Businesses a BOOST in 3 ways: 1.Appointed business people to commissions to regulate businesses 2.Selected supreme court judges that voted against progressive legislation 3.Named conservatives to powerful cabinet positions
“Business of America is Business” In your own words, what does this quote mean? Now that WWI is over, government should do everything possible to encourage business to grow (laissez-faire policies)
During Coolidge’s presidency… How were anti-trust agencies (ICC, FTC) weakened? He appointed people to regulatory commissions who opposed regulation. They overlooked violations of anti-trust laws How did the Supreme Court weaken laws protecting workers (women/children?) Child labor laws & minimum wages laws declared unconstitutional
During Coolidge’s presidency… How did appointing conservatives (Andrew Mellon) to the cabinet (gov’t positions) help big business? Reduced taxes for business owners & people with high level incomes
During Coolidge’s presidency… During Coolidge’s presidency, did the above actions encourage or discourage laissez-faire business practices? Explain your answer Encourage b/c the government presence of controlling trusts and protecting workers was reduced greatly, therefore there was very little presence of government in business.
Calvin Coolidge Andrew Mellon – secretary of Treasury under Harding Coolidge, and Hoover – 1921 – 1932 Favored giving millionaires tax cuts – overturned almost all of the progressive tax policies of Wilson Coolidge and Mellon both agreed that government should interfere as little as possible with big business
President #3 – Herbert Hoover Year Elected – 1928 Years in Office – 1929-1933
Herbert Hoover Background – born in Iowa 1874, grew up in Oregon Stanford – mining engineer Head of Food Administration during WWI Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge – helped organize food to be sent to Europe and Russia After the crash – cut taxes and expand public works spending Became a scapegoat for the Great Depression
Herbert Hoover – “Wonder Boy” Secretary of Commerce in the 1920’s Control and regulate airlines, radio, and other new industries Minimize price competition Pushed for the Bureau of Standards (standardization) Supported 8 hr work days, conservation of natural resources, food for children Pollution Act of 1924 – control oil pollution on the coastline
Provide 2 examples of what Herbert Hoover accomplished as Sec. of Commerce, which earned him the nickname “Wonder Boy.” Expanded Commerce Dep’t to regulate airlines, radio, and new industries. Organize trade associations: groups of firms in the same line of business Standardize everything manufactured in the nation Supported zoning laws, 8 hour work days, improved nutrition for children
Herbert Hoover – Attitude towards Business Volunteer effort Free enterprise
Hoover believed in “volunteer effort” and free enterprise. What do you think that means? Government should have as little as a role possible in both business and citizen’s lives.