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Architecture of Christianity in Eastern Empire: Byzantine Churches.

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Presentation on theme: "Architecture of Christianity in Eastern Empire: Byzantine Churches."— Presentation transcript:

1 Architecture of Christianity in Eastern Empire: Byzantine Churches

2 Architecture in the Middle Ages (400-1400) 6 th cen. reign of Emperor Justinian c. 1400 Italian Renaissance begins Middle Ages (medieval) “Dark Ages” Western Europe Late Antique or Early Christian Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) EARLY MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE ON THE MEDITERRANEAN: BYZANTINE DESIGN 4 th cen. 1453 Constantinple conquered by Ottoman Turks

3 Roman emperor Constantine founds Constantinople in 330 Constantine founded Constantinople as capital of the East Roman / Byzantine Empire I. Founding a second Roman capital in the East: Constantine and Constantinple

4 Black Sea Marmara Sea Constantinople I.

5 Roman emperor Constantine Constantine’s Hagia Sophia I.

6 II. Byzantine Christian Space: First congregational architecture symbolic of Christianity (ostensibly a non-materialist faith) Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Constantinople), Turkey, 532-37

7 functional Early Christian Hagia Sophia basilica symbolic Byzantine Hagia Sophia Emperor Justinian r. 527-565 AD 360 AD 532 II. A. Context: Why did the first architecture symbolic of Christianity not appear until the sixth century?

8 functional early Christian architecture S. Sabina, 5 th -cen. Rome Byzantine: symbolic of heavenly paradise Hagia Sophia, 6 th -cen. Constantinople III. Attributes of the Christian church (Byzantine style) as a symbolic analog of heaven

9 III. A. Ritual: How did was the design functional in terms of Byzantine ritual & Romanness? Old St. Peter’s (early Christian, 4 th cen.)Hagia Sophia (Byzantine, 6 th cen.) congregational basilicacongregational basilica + domed central-plan

10 III. A. west façade todayreconstruction of west façade Hagia Sophia

11 Half domes give axiality to the “central” plan design III. A.

12 Hagia Sophia 2 nd -floor galleries bring more worshipers to center III. A.

13 Inner narthexOuter narthex Hagia Sophia III. B. Formal analysis: How were the following architectural elements manipulated to make Hagia Sophia an archetype of symbolic Christian architecture: 1. surface decoration and mosaic?

14 Glimpse of metaphysical order insideVirgin and Child apse mosaic III. B. 1. visual airiness created by light reflecting mosaics Hagia Sophia

15 Hagia Sophia – looking east III. B. 1.

16 Hagia Sophia – details of the curved exedrae III. B. 1. ground-floor: porphyry columns – spolia from Egypt

17 Hagia Sophia – details of the curved exedrae marble revetment in the SE exedraemarble fretwork screen panel in the gallery III. B. 1.

18 Hagia Sophia – the nave looking east III. B. 1. nave and gallery columns are all newly quarried verde antico marble from Turkey

19 III. B. 2. light Hagia Sophia

20 walls seem to emanate light III. B. 2.

21 Hagia Sophia extensively fenestrated clerestoreyDome appears to hover over the interior III. B. 1. & 2. semi-circular lunettes

22 Hagia Sophia Roman round arch Byzantine stilted arch III. B. 3. architectural language (new modulations of classical forms)?

23 Byzantine basket capitals (Hagia Sophia) III. B. 3. Classical Corinthian columnByzantine basket capital in the gallery (Hagia Sophia)

24 III. C. What innovations in structure and spatial composition made the symbolic earthly analog of heaven possible? Hagia Sophia recessed exedrae

25 III. C. 1. Byzantine structural solution to the square plan: Dome on pendentives Pantheon (Roman dome)Hagia Sophia (Byzantine dome on square base)

26 pendentive dome or sail vaultdome on pendentives III. C. 1.

27 III. C. 2. Byzantine spatial composition: interrelationship of spatial units Hagia Sophia

28 side aisle III. C. 2.

29 Hagia Sophia

30 Byzantine Hagia Sophia Classical Pantheon III. C. 2. physical order metaphysical order

31 III. C. 3. Load and support: Is it celebrated or concealed? Hagia Sophia

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