Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

GLY3160 / PHY3160 Introduction to Geophysics What is geophysics? CCCComes in two* basic flavors*(your text says three) Pure (academic) geophysics –

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "GLY3160 / PHY3160 Introduction to Geophysics What is geophysics? CCCComes in two* basic flavors*(your text says three) Pure (academic) geophysics –"— Presentation transcript:

1 GLY3160 / PHY3160 Introduction to Geophysics What is geophysics? CCCComes in two* basic flavors*(your text says three) Pure (academic) geophysics – Studying various Earth processes from a physics approach. –P–P–P–Purpose: To understand Earth processes. Applied (geological) geophysics – Using physical properties of the Earth to provide information about the subsurface. –P–P–P–Purpose: To better characterize the geology of the subsurface. A giant natural physics lab – Used to test physics hypotheses / theories about general physical processes. Not really concerned about the Earth. –P–P–P–Purpose: To better understand physics laws.

2 Example: Gravity Pure Geophysics: Pure Geophysics:  Measure accel due to gravity  mass of the Earth.  Then use size of Earth  avg. density Applied Geophysics Applied Geophysics  Measure small changes in g  detect subsurface void Applied geophysics requires knowledge and understanding of pure geophysics! Applied geophysics requires knowledge and understanding of pure geophysics!

3 Why Study Geophysics? Who hires geophysicists? Who hires geophysicists?  Energy Companies $$$  Mining Companies $$$  Government Jobs  Engineering Consultants  Environmental Consultants Bottom line…geophysics is highly employable Bottom line…geophysics is highly employable  

4 Why is Geophysics Useful? Some sweeping generalizations… Geology: Geology:  Limited to the surface of the Earth Geologists must infer the 3 rd dimensionGeologists must infer the 3 rd dimension Boreholes are an exception, but are expensive and only give limited information (<13 km depth).Boreholes are an exception, but are expensive and only give limited information (<13 km depth).  Gives extremely detailed data about small areas.  Provides information about the past. Geophysics Geophysics  Adds information about the 3 rd dimension.  Can truly “look into the Earth”  Gives less detailed information about much larger areas.  Results are often “non-unique”  Usually cannot give information about the past Exceptions are radiometric dating and paleomagnetism.Exceptions are radiometric dating and paleomagnetism.  Can study non-tangible things…e.g. forces

5 How Do Geophysicists “Look at” Rocks? Geologists mainly look at rocks visually Geologists mainly look at rocks visually  Map rock occurrence  Visually identify mineral content Optical microscopesOptical microscopes SEMSEM  “Direct” approach. Geophysicists “look at” rocks differently Geophysicists “look at” rocks differently  Measure properties such as density, resistivity, magnetic properties, elastic moduli, radioactivity, etc…  Use these properties to infer rock type / composition  “Indirect” approach, but offers information that is not possible to visually obtain.

6 Geology vs. Geophysics At the end of the day geology and geophysics are both useful when studying the Earth. At the end of the day geology and geophysics are both useful when studying the Earth. Geophysics does not replace traditional geologic study; it compliments it. Geophysics does not replace traditional geologic study; it compliments it. The best geologists understand and appreciate geophysics The best geologists understand and appreciate geophysics The best geophysicists understand and appreciate geology The best geophysicists understand and appreciate geology

7 The Scientific Method Science is not subjective Science is not subjective Results are statements based on observations Results are statements based on observations Results must be reproducible and thoroughly tested Results must be reproducible and thoroughly tested Scientific discovery is the results of human efforts… people just like you! Scientific discovery is the results of human efforts… people just like you! Science is not involved with “proving” things; science just test ideas! Science is not involved with “proving” things; science just test ideas!

8 The Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1- Identifying the problem or question 1- Identifying the problem or question What are we trying to figure out? 2- Collecting data 2- Collecting data Collect data that addresses the problem 3- Propose hypothesis 3- Propose hypothesis An idea that is consistent with your collected data 4- Test hypothesis 4- Test hypothesis If your idea is correct, then maybe other things should be true too. Test ‘em! Get ‘er done! Over time, others will test your hypothesis  Does the hypothesis agree with other data?  Does the hypothesis predict behaviors? If yes, then the hypothesis may become a theoryIf yes, then the hypothesis may become a theory If no, then the hypothesis must be modified or rejectedIf no, then the hypothesis must be modified or rejected

9 Hypotheses, Theories, and Laws, Oh My! Hypothesis Hypothesis proposed by a person or several people consistent with your data other researchers test it Theory Theory proposed by the scientific community consistent with all verified data may be modified if new data is presented. Scientific Model Scientific Model Combines many theories and hypotheses to explain a complex system Law Law considered absolutely correct throughout the natural universe (e.g. gravity, superposition) usually based on logic or mathematics The Moral… Its not easy to become a theory.

10 Scientific Method Modern Example: Upheaval Dome, UT Step 1 – Identify the problem/question Step 1 – Identify the problem/question  What formed this bizarre geologic structure?

11 Circular shape Circular shape Dome structure Dome structure Lots of Faults Lots of Faults Collect Data

12 Meteor Impact! Meteor Impact!  Consistent with dome structure and lots of faults Make A Hypothesis

13 Great Hypothesis? Boom!

14 Hypothesis Testing After you submit your findings, someone else reviews your work and points out that After you submit your findings, someone else reviews your work and points out that Salt deposits can also make circular domes!! Salt deposits can also make circular domes!! Uh Oh!  Uh Oh! 

15 This Hypothesis is not Theory-bound!

16 Science?…or Something Else? A friend tells you that he read that sandstone is made of tiny diamonds. A friend tells you that he read that sandstone is made of tiny diamonds.  So small that they are not detectable by any means. Is this science? Is it correct? Is this science? Is it correct? String Theory… String Theory…  Is it science or philosophy?

17 The Moral of the Story Most hypotheses don’t become theories Most hypotheses don’t become theories It takes a LOT of data for a hypothesis to become a theory It takes a LOT of data for a hypothesis to become a theory Ideas that are not testable are not science Ideas that are not testable are not science


Download ppt "GLY3160 / PHY3160 Introduction to Geophysics What is geophysics? CCCComes in two* basic flavors*(your text says three) Pure (academic) geophysics –"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google