2Medieval Art Fusion of different styles Roman ideas (techniques of sculpture lost)Christian ideasChurch richest, most powerful institution in Medieval worldHad the money to support artists throughout Medieval periodNorthern European “Barbarian” artistic tradition (Celtic, Germanic)Byzantine (iconography)Much of the non-religious medieval art is lost to usNo concept of preserving art outside of church
3Medieval Painting: Major Styles Byzantine (iconography)Portrayed people as expressionless / blank eyesFlat, two dimensional figures (unrealistic)Human body was considered sinful; it had to be covered at all timesFocus wasn’t on the individual but rather the celebration of GodIlluminated ManuscriptsBook where text is supplemented by addition of decoration (initial letters, borders, etc)Style was based on animal imagery, combined with an intricate interlacing of geometric linesCreated and drawn by monks, priestsIlluminated Bible page (closeup)
4Medieval Art: Religious Themes St. Francis’ Rule ApprovedGiotto ( ?)Tempera (egg yolk mixed with pigment) on wood and ground goldQuestionsGlowing head?Realistic?Depth perception?
5Medieval Art: Religious Themes The EpiphanyGiotto1320Tempera on wood and ground gold.QuestionsGlowing head?Depth?
6Medieval Art: Religious Themes The CrucifixionGiotto (1305)Tempera on wood and ground gold.QuestionsRealism?Glowing heads?Depth?
7Characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art 1. Bright colors & oil paints (change in material used)2. Focus on realismNatural poses were life-like, realistic (like the GREEKS!)Showed personality & emotion in the artExpulsion from the GardenMasaccio1427First nudes since classical times
8Use of perspective Perspective (Della Pittura – Alberti) (horizon line,vanishing point)Shadowing createdillusion of depthMade items inbackground smaller
9Lamentation Over the Dead Christ, Andre Mantegna (1481) Notes…Realistic?…Perspective?
10Betrothal of the Virgin Perspective!Betrothal of the VirginRaphael1504
19Lorenzo the Magnificent Cosimo de MediciGrandson of CosimoRuled Florence, 1469 to deathPatron to Da Vinci, Michelangelo, BotticelliMedici bank = base of powerTook over Florence, 1433Patron to Brunelleschi, others
20Adoration of the Magi Entire Medici family shown Who are the “magi”? Who is in farright, lookingat viewers?
22Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436 Architect, sponsored by Cosimo MediciWon contest to design the dome of St. Maria del Fiore (cathedral)
23Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1436) Won competition to design dome for new Cathedral in FlorenceBefore starting, he travelled around Italy for inspirationUsed the ancient Romans’ architectural conceptsParthenon, in RomeUsed ribs to support dome
24Brunelleschi – Architect Built lightweight innerdome, then exterior domeof wind resistant materialDimensions: 137 feet acrossWeight: 40,785 tons containingover four million bricksTime to construct: 16 years
25Dome ComparisonsIl Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US Capitol (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
27Madonna and Child, Fra Filippo Lippi Emotion of face -she looks like a real mother - tired, worn down
28School of Athens-Raphael Painting of Plato’s Academy, w/ many ancient scholars shownPlato and Aristotle on either side of center axisPlato points skyward to indicate his idealistic worldviewAristotle gestures to ground to show his concern with the real worldRaphael on extreme rightFigures grouped and placed on purpose
29The School of Athens – Raphael, details Plato: pointing to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm].Aristotle: pointing to the earth [the here and now].