Presentation on theme: "16.2 The Acceptance of Renaissance Ideas. A number of changes had taken place during the early 1400’s that influenced artists and thinkers. Patrons of."— Presentation transcript:
A number of changes had taken place during the early 1400’s that influenced artists and thinkers. Patrons of the arts such as Florence’s Medici family knew who the talented artists were provided them with generous funding. Scholarship was encouraged and intellectual curiosity spread in both the humanities and the arts.
Development of Renaissance Style The medieval search for eternal salvation gradually changed to a humanist focus based on the classical culture and knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome. As a result of this intellectual rebirth, artists acquired additional areas of interest from which to draw ideas for their works and develop techniques that brought an exciting new vitality to their paintings and sculptures.
Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Paolo Uccello (pah-oh-loh oo-chell-oh) was one of the Renaissance artists who eagerly accepted the new Renaissance ideas. His concern for perspective is evident when you analyze his painting The Battle of San Romano (next slide). Bodies and broken spears are placed in such a way that they lead your eye into the picture. Notice the fallen figure in the lower left corner. Here Uccello used a technique known as foreshortening, drawing a figures or objects according to the rules of perspective so that they appear to recede or protrude into 3D space. Pays very close attention to perspective but fails to make figures seem lifelike.
The Battle of San Romano Paolo Uccello Tempera on Wood 6ft x 10ft 5in. 1445
Innovations in Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture A new emphasis on realism inspired by surviving models from classical Greece and Rome revealed itself in various ways in the visual arts of the Italian Renaissance. Painting More and more artists turned their attention to creating depth and form to replace the flat 2D surfaces that characterized medieval pictures. Perspective and modeling in light and shade were used to achieve astonishing, realistic appearances. Sculpture The same concern for realism was manifested in the lifelike figures of Donatello and Michelangelo that seemed to move freely and naturally in space. Architecture The Gothic style was abandoned for favor of newer styles. This new style traced its origins back in time to the carefully proportioned, balanced, and elegant buildings of classical times.
Donatello (1386-1486) One of the assistants who worked for Ghiberti on the first set of doors for the Baptistery of Florence. Would go on to become the greatest sculptor of the Early Renaissance. A good friend of Brunelleschi, he also shared Masaccio’s interest in realistic appearances and perspective. Donatello used perspective in sculpture when carving figures that were to be placed above eye level in churches. He made the upper part of the bodies longer so that when viewed from below, they would seem more naturalistic. This kept the sculpture from looking short and awkward. St. Mark. Donatello. Marble. Florence Italy.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) You may be wondering what became of Filippo Brunelleschi. He was, as you recall, the artist credited with discovering linear perspective. You may also recall that he was Ghiberti’s major rival for the right to design the doors of the Baptistery in Florence. When he lost the contest to Ghiberti, Brunelleschi was very disappointed. In fact, it caused him to abandon sculptor for a career in architecture. 16 years later, the two rivals faced each other again in another competition. This time they were asked to submit designs for a huge dome for the Cathedral of Florence.
Designing the Dome of Florence Cathedral Work on the Cathedral had been under way for generations. Everything had been completed except a dome that would span the huge opening above the altar. No one was able to design a dome that would cover such a large opening. They claimed that it could not be done. Brunelleschi was one that claimed that it was possible and submitted a plan based on Gothic building techniques and was awarded the opportunity to try. It took 16 years to build the dome, but when it was finished Brunelleschi had the reputation of being a master architect and engineer.
Florence Cathedral Dome Brunelleschi’s plan used 8 gothic ribs that meet at the top of the dome. The surface between the ribs were filled with bricks. For extra height the dome was placed on a drum. Circular windows in the drum allow light to flow in to the building. It soon became the symbol of the city’s power and strength. It was so great that when designing the dome for St. Peter’s in Rome, Michelangelo borrowed ideas from it.
Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) Forgotten for centuries, the artist’s paintings are now ranked among the most admired of the Renaissance period. In his Adoration of the Magi (next slide), an aisle bordered by kneeling figures leads you to the Holy Family. They are surrounded by the Magi, the kings or wise men who visited the Christ child, and their attendants all dressed in garments worn during Botticelli's time. The Magi are presenting their gifts to the Christ child., seated on Mary’s lap. The figures are drawn with crisp, sharp, contour lines and their garments have folds that twist and turn in a decorative pattern. Line is used to unify the painting and to emphasize the most important parts. A line drawn around the main figures forms a large triangle with the Madonna and child at the top. If you include the Magi’s attendants on both sides, it creates a W.
The Adoration of the Magi Sandro Botticelli Tempera and Oil on Panel 1481