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Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Mr. T.D.Tennent FRCS(Orth)

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Presentation on theme: "Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Mr. T.D.Tennent FRCS(Orth)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Arthroscopy Of the Ankle Mr. T.D.Tennent FRCS(Orth)

2 Ankle Arthroscopy Anatomy Patient setup Portal placement Procedures Complications

3 Anatomy

4 Portals Anterior Anteromedial Anterolateral Anterocentral Posterior Posterolateral Posteromedial Transachilles Tendon

5 Portals Anterior Anteromedial medial to tibialis anterior saphenous nerve and vein are medial

6 Portals Anterior Anterolateral lateral to peroneus tertius between branches of superficial peroneal nerve (6.5cm prox to tib of fibula)

7 Portals Anterior Anterocentral between tendons of extensor digitorum communis dorsalis pedis artery and deep branch of peroneal nerve lie between tendons of EDC and EHL

8 Portals Accessory Anterior Portals Accessory anteromedial 1cm inferior and anterior to anterior border of medial malleolus Accessory anterolateral 1cm anterior and at or below tip of lateral malleolus

9 Anterior Portals

10 Portals Posterior Posterolateral adjacent to lateral edge of achilles tendon cm above tip of fibula sural nerve and small saphenous vein

11 Portals Posterior Posteromedial medial to achilles tendon at the joint line posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve Tendons of FHL and FDL calcaneal nerve branches

12 Portals Posterior Transachilles Tendon at same level as the posteromedial but through center of achilles tendon

13 Portals Accessory Posterior Portals Accessory Posterolateral cm lateral to posterolateral portal, slightly higher sural nerve and small saphenous vein

14 Portals Accessory Portals Transmalleolar Transtalar

15 Posterior Portals

16 Patient Setup

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19 Making Portals

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25 Normal Ankle Examination 21 Point examination (Ferkel) 8 anterior (anteromedial portal) 6 central (anteromedial portal) 7 posterior (posterolateral portal)

26 Normal Ankle Examination Anterior 1: Deep portion deltoid ligament 2: Medial gutter 3: Medial talar dome 4: Medial talus articulation with plafond sagittal groove

27 Normal Ankle Examination 5: Lateral talus 6: Talofibular articulation “trifurcation” distal lateral tibial plafond lateral talar dome fibula 7: Lateral gutter 8: Anterior gutter

28 Anterior Examination

29 Normal Ankle Examination Central 9: Medial dome of talus & corresponding plafond 10: Central portion of talus & plafond 11: Articulation lateral talar dome with tibia & fibula

30 Normal Ankle Examination Posterior 12: Posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament 13: Transverse tibiofibular ligament 14: Capsular reflection of FHL

31 Central Examination

32 Normal Ankle Examination Posterior (from posterolateral portal) 15: Deltoid ligament, posteromedial gutter 16: Posterior medial talar dome, tibial plafond 17: Central talus and distal tibia 18: Lateral talar dome, posterior tibia

33 Normal Ankle Examination 19: Posterior talofibular articulation 20: Lateral gutter 21: Posterior gutter

34 Posterior Examination

35 Procedures Arthrodesis Osteochondral Defects Instability Post Sprain Pain Anterior Impingement Meniscoid Lesions

36 Arthrodesis

37 Zvijac (Arthroscopy Jan 2002) 21 patients Mean age 52.7 Av. FU 34 months 20/21 fusion Av. time to union 8.9 weeks

38 Arthrodesis 9 excellent: no pain, limp, or occupational restriction 11 good: mild pain, occasional limp 1 poor: failed union and pain extensive AVN approximately 50% talus

39 Arthrodesis Advantages: high fusion rate decreased time to fusion decreased cost No or mild angular deformity No AVN greater than 30% of the talus.

40 Arthrodesis Cameron (Arthroscopy Feb 2000) 15 cases FU 1-3 years 100% fusion Average of 11.5 weeks

41 Arthrodesis 5 patients required further surgical treatment 2/5: infections 2 required hardware removal –1 screws symptomatic subcutaneously –1 screw penetrated the subtalar joint

42 Osteochondral Defects Ogilvie-Harris (Arthroscopy Dec 1999) 33 patients duration of symptoms 2.3 years FU 7.4 years Osteocartilaginous fragment removed Defect debrided with a power shaver Base abraded

43 OCD 79% were able to return to unrestricted sports 3% (1 pt) was unable to return to any sport Minor degenerative changes in 2 cases

44 OCD Lahm (Arthroscopy April 2000) 42 patients 22 underwent percutaneous drilling 13 cancellous bone grafting 4 refixation 3 curettage

45 OCD 24 lateral talus all had trauma 11/18 lesions at the medial talus no evidence of trauma

46 OCD K-wire drilling reached an average of 87 points No significant difference in the lesions at the medial or lateral talus

47 Ankle instability Ogilvie-Harris (Arthroscopy Nov 1994) 19 patients Clinical features of disruption of the syndesmotic ligaments Positive external rotation stress test

48 Ankle instability Common triad: Disruption of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament Rupture of the interosseous ligament Chondral fracture of the posterolateral portion of the tibial plafond

49 Ankle instability Arthroscopic resection of the torn portion of the interosseous ligament and the chondral pathology Successfully relieved the symptoms in most of the patients

50 Post sprain pain Ogilvie-Harris (Arthroscopy Oct 1997) 100 patients Failed to respond to conservative treatment for at least 6 months

51 Post sprain pain 3 groups: Instabilities (lateral and syndesmotic) Impingements (anterior and anterolateral) Articular lesions (chondral and osteochondral).

52 Post sprain pain Significant improvements : –syndesmotic instability –anterior and anterolateral impingement Chondral fractures –stable ankle : 75% good –unstable ankles: 33% good

53 Post sprain pain Arthroscopy offered little to the management of lateral instability Minimal improvements for the patients with nonspecific diagnoses

54 Anterior Impingement Anterior ankle pain ? aetiology

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57 Meniscoid Lesion Persistent pain in the anterior part of the upper ankle Portions of hyalinized tissue following an inversion sprain of the ankle Trapping of this formation between the lateral cheek of the talus and the fibula is supposed to be responsible for pain

58 Meniscoid lesion Lahm (Arthroscopy Sept 1998) 59 arthroscopic procedures Meniscoid lesions were seen in 19 cases Only 1 of these 19 patients showed lateral and anterior instability

59 Osteoarthritis Ogilvie-Harris (Arthroscopy Aug 1995) 27 patients 4 years symptoms FU 45 months 17/27 patients improved only 2 ankles were restored to normal function

60 Osteoarthritis Statistically significant improvement in –Pain –Swelling –Stiffness –Limp –Activity level Feeling of instability failed to reach significance

61 Outcomes Amendola (Arthroscopy Oct 1996) 79 arthroscopies minimum 2-year follow-up

62 Outcomes 21 OCD 14 post-ankle fracture scarring 11osteoarthritis and chondromalacia 14 anterior bony impingement 15 anterolateral soft tissue impingement or synovitis

63 Outcomes 63 of 79 patients benefited in some way Theraputic only: 36 of 44 (82%) of the patients benefited

64 Outcomes Best results: Localized osteochondral lesion of the talus Localized bony or soft tissue impingement Localized lateral plica

65 Outcomes Worse results: Osteoarthritis Posttraumatic chondromalacia Arthrofibrosis

66 Outcomes 3 significant neurological complications –2 partial deep peroneal nerve neuropraxia –1 superficial peroneal nerve irritation

67 Complications RD Ferkel (Arthroscopy 1996) 612 patients overall 9.0%, 27 neurological (4.4%) 15 superficial peroneal nerve 6 sural nerve 5 saphenous nerve 1 deep peroneal nerve

68 Complications Mariani (Arthroscopy April 2001) pseudoaneurysm

69 Summary Useful technique Advantages over open surgery in some cases Potential neurovascular complications Strict adherence to portal technique

70 Thank You


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