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Islamic World Islamic Era - Chronology  570 CE – Birth of Muhammed, founder of Islam  610 CE – Muhammed’s vision that creates Islam (Archangel Gabriel.

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Presentation on theme: "Islamic World Islamic Era - Chronology  570 CE – Birth of Muhammed, founder of Islam  610 CE – Muhammed’s vision that creates Islam (Archangel Gabriel."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Islamic World

3 Islamic Era - Chronology  570 CE – Birth of Muhammed, founder of Islam  610 CE – Muhammed’s vision that creates Islam (Archangel Gabriel comes to him)  622 CE – Muhammed leaves Mecca for Medina and begins gaining converts – this event is known as the Hegira (Hajj)  630 CE – Muhammed and followers return to Mecca and overtake the city – the Kabah is set up as major Islamic shrine  632 CE – Death of Muhammed, his father-in-law Abu – Bakhr takes over and creates the title caliph; begins the creation of an empire of Islam by conquering neighboring lands. At Abu-Bakhr’s death Umar takes over as caliph. Muslims divide into many subgroups.

4 Islamic Era - Chronology  718 CE – Spain is under Muslim control  734 CE – Battle of Poitiers – Muslim spread is stopped by Charles Martel of France  762 – 766 CE – The Abbasid Dynasty takes over from Umayyads (except in Spain) and move capital from Damascus to Baghdad  788 – 879 CE – Several countries break free from caliphate and set up individual kingdoms and dynasties  879 CE – Seljuk Turks begin conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia  900 CE – Fatimids take over in Egypt and conquer all of North Africa

5 Islamic Era - Chronology  945 CE – Abbasid power falls to the Shiites  969 – 1171 CE – Fatimid Dynasty recreates a smaller version of the Caliphate in Egypt  1037 – 1194 CE – Seljuk Turk Dynasty  1077 CE – Seljuk Turks conquer most of Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon  1099 CE – Crusades begun against Muslims in the Holy Land by Pope Urban  1187 CE – Saladin ends Western control of Holy Land (Outremer) after Battle of Hattin

6 Islamic Era - Chronology  1248 CE – Muslims lose control of most of Spain except area around Granada  1251 CE – Malmuk Dynasty takes over caliphate in Egypt  1258 CE – Abbasid Dynasty is completely wiped out by Mongol invasion  1327 CE – Seljuk Empire collapses; Arab world splits into several kingdoms  1453 CE – Ottoman Empire defeats the Byzantine Empire; move capital to Istanbul (Constantinople)  1492 CE – Muslims completely expelled from Spain

7 5 Pillars of Faith – (Sunni)  1) Shahadah – profession of faith – “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger”  2) Salah – ritual prayer done 5x a day at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening  3) Zakat – giving to the poor – everyone must give something depending on what they earn  4) Sawm – fasting during month of Ramadan – refraining from food, drink and sexual intercourse from dawn to dusk each day of the month – also supposed to get along with others better and get closer to Allah during this time (there are exceptions for health, etc.)  5) Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca – every able bodied Muslim must make the pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime – must walk around the Kaaba 7 times, touch the stone and symbolically throw rocks at the devil  In Shiite Islam there are the additional pillars of Jihad (personal struggle against Islam’s enemies) and Khum (giving a tithe to the Imam)

8 Islamic Terms  Islam – submission to Allah (god)  Muslim – one who submits to the will of Allah  Hajj/Hegira – pilgrimage to Mecca  Imam – religious leader  Quran (Koran) – Muslim Holy Book  Sura – chapter in the Quran  Qiyama – Day of Judgment  Jannah - heaven

9 Islamic Art Characteristics  Geometric Patterns  No icons, rare animals  Heavy use of plasterwork  Quotations from Koran used as art – calligraphy  Plain interiors  Water is used as a way to show off wealth

10 Islamic Art  Dome of the Rock  CE  Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine  Architecture  Earliest major Islamic building  Jerusalem is 3 rd holiest city to Muslims

11 Islamic Art  Interior of Dome of the Rock  690 CE  Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine  Architecture  Interior is heavily decorated for an Islamic building  The rock in the center marks the alleged place where Abraham was going to sacrifice his first born son; it is also the alleged place where Muhammed was taken by Gabriel on a mi’raj (spiritual journey) to visit heaven and hell

12 Islamic Art – Dome of the Rock

13 Grand Mosque of Damascus (Ummayad Mosque) CE Damascus, Syria Architecture Includes a shrine inside which claims the head of John The Baptist Also has the tomb of Saladin And the head of Husayn, the grandson of Mohammed

14 Islamic Art  Cordoba Mosque  786  Cordoba, Spain  Architecture  Artist: Begun by Abd-al Rahman  Umayyad Dynasty in Spain’s influence is seen here  Interior is considered a masterpiece of Islamic architecture

15 Islamic Art  Interior of La Mezquita (Great Mosque of Cordoba)  8 th – 10 th C. CE  Archtecture  Cordoba, Spain  Typical Arab style hypostyle hall  Horseshoe arcades decorate interior making this one of the most beautiful mosques in the world

16 Dome in front of the mihrab of the Great Mosque

17 Islamic Art  Mosque of Sulayman II  1550 – 1557 CE  Istanbul, Turkey  Architecture  Artist: Sinan  This is an enormous Ottoman imperial mosque – to compete with Christian churches in the area  Has courtyard with central fountain

18 Islamic Art  Interior Mosque of Sulayman   Architecture  Istanbul, Turkey  Artist: Sinan  Vast open space created by domes  Limited decoration as Islamic law prohibits idols and idolatry

19 Islamic Art  Interior Mosque of Sulayman II  1550 – 1557 CE  Istanbul, Turkey  Architecture  Sinan  The dome is supported by 8 piers  It is over 197 ft high  The structural components are the focus rather than being hidden

20 Malwiya minaret of the Great Mosque of Samarra ca Samarra, Iraq When rediscovered by Western archaeologists they believed it to be the Tower of Babel in error This is only the minaret - prayer tower next to mosque

21 Malwiya minaret and Great Mosque

22 Islamic Art  Court of the Lions  14 th century CE  Granada, Spain  Architecture/Sculpture  Located on the grounds of the Alhambra  The Nasrid Dynasty built this to show wealth with the use of excessive water

23 Muqarnas Dome Granada, Spain Inside the Hall of the Two Sisters in the Alahambra Palace Made of plaster – another use of excess water to show wealth

24 Mausoleum of the Samanids early 10th century Bukhara, Uzbekistan Architecture Despite Islamic prohibitions about extravagant burials – the Samanid rulers built great monuments to death

25 Madrasa/Mosque/Mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan CE Cairo, Egypt Madrasa – Islamic school Considered the best multiple complex in Islam

26 Qibla wall, main iwan Cairo, Egypt Architecture Inside the Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan Qibla wall helps point faithful in right direction for prayer in any mosque

27 Islamic Art  Shah-namah book page  1562 – 1583  Persia (Iran)  Illuminated Manuscript  Book was written by Firdawsi  It is a work of 60,000 couplets

28 Courtyard of the Great Mosque (The Friday Mosque) 11 th century CE Isfahan, Iran Architecture From early Seljuk period in Persia 4 gate style mosque opens in all directions

29 Dome of the Friday Mosque Isfahan, Iran Architecture Artist: Nizam Al-Mulk Glazed tile roof adds bright colors to mosque

30 Islamic Art  Kaaba  Traditional dating c BCE, rebuilt CE  Mecca, Saudi Arabia  Architecture  Holiest spot in the world to Muslims  Black stone inside is said to have fallen from heaven

31 Kaaba

32 Islamic Art  Al Masjid Al Nabawi  7 th -13 th centuries CE  Medina, Saudi Arabia  Architecture  Tomb of Mohammed can be found under the green dome  AKA – Dome of the Prophet  Originally his house

33 Eastern façade of Friday Mosque Djenne, Mali Architecture 13th century, rebuilt – mud brick Also found in our Africa power point

34 Islamic Art

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36  The end...  Next lecture...


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