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Development of Sound Therapy Device BME 273: Cindy Hlavacek, BME and Noah Walcutt, ME Thomas Anderson, MA and Robin Midgett, VU Electronics Technician.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of Sound Therapy Device BME 273: Cindy Hlavacek, BME and Noah Walcutt, ME Thomas Anderson, MA and Robin Midgett, VU Electronics Technician."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of Sound Therapy Device BME 273: Cindy Hlavacek, BME and Noah Walcutt, ME Thomas Anderson, MA and Robin Midgett, VU Electronics Technician Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN USA Our mission is to develop an advanced prototype for sound therapy. Sound Therapy is a non-invasive therapeutic treatment that has only recently regained acceptance as a viable alternative to mainstream practices. The underlying principle is that sound has the ability to change people consciously and physiologically. Our mission is to develop an advanced prototype for sound therapy. Sound Therapy is a non-invasive therapeutic treatment that has only recently regained acceptance as a viable alternative to mainstream practices. The underlying principle is that sound has the ability to change people consciously and physiologically. This student proposed design project found synergy in adopting art for medical applications. This student proposed design project found synergy in adopting art for medical applications. “The project evolved from my passions in art and engineering into a novel medical application.” ~ Noah Sound/Music can have therapeutic, healing effects Sound/Music can have therapeutic, healing effects Emotional well-being & ConsciousnessEmotional well-being & Consciousness Physical healthPhysical health Communication abilitiesCommunication abilities Cognitive skillsCognitive skills Evidence in the writings of Aristotle & Plato Evidence in the writings of Aristotle & Plato Plato held that music had more healing ability than any other type of medical treatment; "rhythm and harmony find their way into the inward places of the soul, imparting grace, and making the soul of him who is rightly educated graceful."Plato held that music had more healing ability than any other type of medical treatment; "rhythm and harmony find their way into the inward places of the soul, imparting grace, and making the soul of him who is rightly educated graceful." First 20 th century application: WWI & WWII First 20 th century application: WWI & WWII Musicians visited veteran’s hospitals playing music for injured soldiersMusicians visited veteran’s hospitals playing music for injured soldiers Music helped alleviate the physical and emotional trauma of warMusic helped alleviate the physical and emotional trauma of war Doctors and nurses were so impressed with patients’ physical and emotional responses, hospitals around the country began hiring and training musiciansDoctors and nurses were so impressed with patients’ physical and emotional responses, hospitals around the country began hiring and training musicians Potential Benefactors Potential Benefactors All agesAll ages Mental health needsMental health needs Autism and other developmental and learning disabilitiesAutism and other developmental and learning disabilities Alzheimer's disease and other aging related conditionsAlzheimer's disease and other aging related conditions Substance abuseSubstance abuse Brain injuriesBrain injuries Physical disabilitiesPhysical disabilities Acute and chronic painAcute and chronic pain Construct an advanced and unique prototype to be used for sound therapy focusing on: Electronic operation Ease of application Patient & Therapist mobility and comfort Successful execution of sound therapy principles outlined by Thomas Anderson, MA Successful execution of sound therapy principles outlined by Thomas Anderson, MA Effectively alter and improve subject’s mental state Effectively alter and improve subject’s mental state Monitor Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Frontal Lobe activity (EEG) According to George Gruhn, expert in stringed musical instruments, no similar device exists. Figure 1. Dimensional analysis to calculate theoretical resonant frequencies inside the dome/soundboard. A given distance in the dome, which spans 2 nodes, represents half of a wavelength (only 2 shown). Many more sound waves exist in the structure. Figures 2 and 3. Low and high frequency Sine Sweeps using ETF Audio Software with 3 different microphone positions (full1, 2full, and 3full). Results show our device resonates at lower fundamental frequencies. Using the theoretical resonant frequencies and actual measurements, the strings can be tuned to represent the more spatially significant resonant frequency. After assessing the final design and performance of the device, our advisor provided us with a great deal of positive feedback. From his extensive background working with musical instruments and studying archeo-acoustics, he praised the aesthetic and original qualities and noted that the three dimensional space and large size makes for a very comfortable and enjoyable experience. The experience changes one’s perception, which is usually directional and biased. Learning multi-directional perception is important in sensory development and acuity. Research has also correlated similar experiences with sensory training for people with autism and other developmental disabilities, dementia and brain injuries. After assessing the final design and performance of the device, our advisor provided us with a great deal of positive feedback. From his extensive background working with musical instruments and studying archeo-acoustics, he praised the aesthetic and original qualities and noted that the three dimensional space and large size makes for a very comfortable and enjoyable experience. The experience changes one’s perception, which is usually directional and biased. Learning multi-directional perception is important in sensory development and acuity. Research has also correlated similar experiences with sensory training for people with autism and other developmental disabilities, dementia and brain injuries. Mr. Anderson stresses the therapeutic benefits of play in the art of healing. This dimension of the experience calls for discovery and creativity – two aspects that were present in our final product. Mr. Anderson stresses the therapeutic benefits of play in the art of healing. This dimension of the experience calls for discovery and creativity – two aspects that were present in our final product. Mr. Anderson also offered constructive criticisms and suggested areas of improvement. Most notably, the handmade mechanical components detracted from the audible experience. To resolve this issue, he suggested using machined components for greater precision, similar to modern instrument manufacturing. Another design flaw was the use of piano-like strikers to activate the strings. To resolve this issue, he suggested directly using magnets to resonate the strings. A final improvement would be changing the geometry to optimize the acoustics and the overall experience – replacing the penti- hemisphere with a perfect hemisphere. Mr. Anderson also offered constructive criticisms and suggested areas of improvement. Most notably, the handmade mechanical components detracted from the audible experience. To resolve this issue, he suggested using machined components for greater precision, similar to modern instrument manufacturing. Another design flaw was the use of piano-like strikers to activate the strings. To resolve this issue, he suggested directly using magnets to resonate the strings. A final improvement would be changing the geometry to optimize the acoustics and the overall experience – replacing the penti- hemisphere with a perfect hemisphere. We had hoped to quantitatively assess our device by monitoring a patient vitals and brain activity using an EEG machine. However, after further discussion with our advisor, we determined that given the primitive state of our instrument, our inexperience in studying the biological signals and lack of proper training that this would be inappropriate. We had hoped to quantitatively assess our device by monitoring a patient vitals and brain activity using an EEG machine. However, after further discussion with our advisor, we determined that given the primitive state of our instrument, our inexperience in studying the biological signals and lack of proper training that this would be inappropriate. Cost Analysis:Labor Costs $4500 Support Structure $100 Electronics $300 Acoustic Related $200 Miscellaneous $100 Aesthetics $50 Total Cost to Prototype $5250 Given that no similar device exists, we decided to assess marketability based on our target audience. Over one million people in the United States have been diagnosed as autistic. Every year in the United States there are nearly two million cases of traumatic head injury. The size of the device is the only limiting factor when considering reproducibility. Given the low cost of our initial design, mass-production is highly feasible. No safety concerns arose during testing, however clinical trials are needed to identify potential issues. Given that no similar device exists, we decided to assess marketability based on our target audience. Over one million people in the United States have been diagnosed as autistic. Every year in the United States there are nearly two million cases of traumatic head injury. The size of the device is the only limiting factor when considering reproducibility. Given the low cost of our initial design, mass-production is highly feasible. No safety concerns arose during testing, however clinical trials are needed to identify potential issues. Introduction Project Statement 1.Computer National Instruments™ LabVIEW software controls 3501 DAQNational Instruments™ LabVIEW software controls 3501 DAQ DAQ controls electronic circuit board componentsDAQ controls electronic circuit board components 2.Electrical 120V external power source powers computer and circuit board120V external power source powers computer and circuit board Computer  DAQ  10kΩ Resistor  Bipolar TransistorComputer  DAQ  10kΩ Resistor  Bipolar Transistor  Steady State Relay (SSR)  Solenoid (inductor)  Steady State Relay (SSR)  Solenoid (inductor) (x20 for all guitar strings) (x20 for all guitar strings) 3.Mechanical 20 Solenoid banks each admit a magnetic plunger which control a pulley system:20 Solenoid banks each admit a magnetic plunger which control a pulley system: A string attached to each plungers transmits the force of the admitted plunger to a wooden arm belowA string attached to each plungers transmits the force of the admitted plunger to a wooden arm below Each striker arm hits one of the 20 guitar stringsEach striker arm hits one of the 20 guitar strings 4.Acoustics  20 guitar strings strung tangentially to 5 sides of dome soundboard  Create music which resonates inside the dome  Theoretical resonant frequencies calculated using measured dome dimensions  Actual resonant frequencies measured using ETF Audio Software (provided by advisor Thomas Anderson)  Analysis of spatial resonant frequencies maximize the audible range  Strings can then be tuned according to the most spatially significant resonant frequency  Harmonic scales and melodies can be deciphered 5.Biomedical Patient sitting/lounging inside dome experiences the musicPatient sitting/lounging inside dome experiences the music Evidence of a more relaxed and improved mental stateEvidence of a more relaxed and improved mental state Qualitative:Qualitative: Patient response and feedbackPatient response and feedback The Details Engineering Design Components λ / 2 Vertical height (not shown) c = λ f Figure 1 Figure 2 DAQ Card 120V External Circuit Board Solenoids Pulley System Strikers Guitar Strings on Dome Therapeutic Effects Patient experiences Music inside Dome Acoustics Music Resonates Dome How Our Solution WorksDiscussion Development of Sound Therapy Device BME 273: Cindy Hlavacek, BME and Noah Walcutt, ME Thomas Anderson, MA and Robin Midgett, VU Electronics Technician Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN USA Results Background Acknowledgments and References Vanderbilt University Department of Biomedical Engineering for financial resources and use of BME computing labVanderbilt University Department of Biomedical Engineering for financial resources and use of BME computing lab Robin Midgett for his electrical guidance, equipment and general expertiseRobin Midgett for his electrical guidance, equipment and general expertise Thomas Anderson for his Sound Therapy guidance and input and use of his ETF Audio Software and EEG MachineThomas Anderson for his Sound Therapy guidance and input and use of his ETF Audio Software and EEG Machine Vanderbilt University Department of Fine Arts for use of the many woodshop tools and equipment and the majority of our wood supplyVanderbilt University Department of Fine Arts for use of the many woodshop tools and equipment and the majority of our wood supply Krout RE The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 18, 6: Krout RE The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 18, 6: Wigram T The Art and Science of Music Therapy: A Handbook. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, Wigram T The Art and Science of Music Therapy: A Handbook. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, Singh N Effects of Snoezelen room, Activities of Daily Living skills training, and Vocational skills training on aggression and self-injury by adults with mental retardation and mental illness. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 25(3): Singh N Effects of Snoezelen room, Activities of Daily Living skills training, and Vocational skills training on aggression and self-injury by adults with mental retardation and mental illness. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 25(3): Sound Healers Association. 13 Dec Sound Healers Association. 13 Dec http://www.soundhealersassociation.org/


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