Presentation on theme: "Islamic Art & Architecture"— Presentation transcript:
1Islamic Art & Architecture Faith, Pattern, Geometry
2Artist: n/aTitle: The Kaaba, MeccaMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aThe Kaaba, Mecca. Pilgrims surrounding the Kaaba (dedicated by Mohammed)
3Kaaba & Islam Originally held various “pagan” icons Mohammed fled Medina (the hijira) for Mecca and threw out icons from the Kaaba (aniconism)Islam calls for worship of only one god
4Kaaba & Islam Figurative art, especially religion, avoided Islamic artists use nonfigural ornament, text, arabesques (scrolling vines) & complex patternsHowever this varies by region/time frame.. What examples can you think of?
5The Kaaba Millions of faithful Muslims PILGRIMAGE or ha’ij to Mecca Part of 5 pillars of Islam for those able to goInscribed with a few verses of the Qu’ran (Koran)FLASHCARD
6So how does this fit Islam? Merchant al-Amin saw vision of angel in 610 CEMohammed (messenger of God), went to MeccaRecited revelations of the angel in chanted versesHis followers wrote down the verses, became the Qur’anAttracted 1000s of followers; but angered the powerfulFled Mecca for Medina (built first mosque) place of worship/prayerReturned to Mecca with army of 10,0000Emptied the Kaaba - now symbolic center of all Muslim prayer and destination for the ha’ij.
75 Pillars of Islam Allah (one god) : Mohammed = msgr Prayer facing Mecca 5x day (fountains in courtyards for ablutions/washing)Zakah - alms/tax to help poorDaily fasting during Ramadan (annual festival)Pilgrimage to Mecca - circumambulate KaabaWhat other monotheistic religions do you know of?
8The Spread of Islam in the Middle East and Europe Artist: n/aTitle: The Islamic WorldMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aFour caliphs/followers of Mohammed succeeded --spread into India, Africa, Spain
9The 4 CaliphsArabic was used to study and teach, but also simply to delight the eyeRuled after Mohammed3rd Caliph Uthman - completed the Qur’an… unifying force of the Arabic languageAli was the 4th caliph; power struggle - assassination in 661DIVISIONS FROM THIS CONFLICT CONTINUE TODAY….Shi’a = followers of Ali as the one true caliphSunni = believe all 4 caliphs were “rightfully guided”Where are the Shia’s and Sunnis still fighting TODAY ?????
10Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire - Umayyads 661-750 The Dome of the Rock was the first great monument of Islamic Art.Following Ali’s assassination, Umayyad Dynasty founded ( )Empire expanded into Persia, Egypt, Syria & Palestine w/in 20 yearsWent into India, N. Africa and Spain by the early 700s.Built mosques and palaces from capital in Damascus.
11The rock was where Mohammed ascended to God, according to Islam CutawayView ofThe DomeOf the RockInJerusalemThe rock was where Mohammed ascended to God, according to IslamArtist: n/aTitle: Cutaway drawing of the Dome of the RockMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/a
12Golden dome, marble veneers, rich mosaics & patterned carpets Dome of the Rock, interiorJerusalem flashcardBegun 691 CE, Umayyad1st great Islamic monument3rd most holy site in IslamBuilt on holy site for Jews & Christians too;Islamic view : Mohammed completed the prophecies of those faithsFrieze of Qur’an writings of gold mosaic on turquoise background-oldest written Qur’an versesOldest use of Qur’an in architectureArtist: n/aTitle: Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem (interior)Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 691–2Source/Museum: n/aGolden dome, marble veneers, rich mosaics & patterned carpetsDome atop octagonal drum w/ arcades of piers and columnsambulatory aisles for faithful to walk around
13Frieze from façade of Palace at Mshatta (Jordan, 743 CE) Umayyid caliphs built palaces such as the one at MshattaFrieze divided into triangular compartments, geometric shapes contrasting with organic vines, scrolls with birds and animalsNear the mosque portion no animals or birds were shown (aniconism).Where did we see friezes in ancient and classical times?Artist: n/aTitle: Frieze, detail of façade of the palace at MshattaMedium: StoneSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Museum für Islamische Kunst
14Early Dynasties of the Islamic Empire The Dome of the Rock was the first great momument of Islamic Art.Ummayids were replaced by Abbasid dynasty in 750;Ruled from Baghdad until 1258.Abbassids borrowed artistically from Roman, Byzantium, China, Persia & IndiaAbbassids; medicine, arts, literature
15Mosque Features & Plans Hypostyle (multicolumned) mosques such as the Great Mosque of TunisiaAdded courtyard, flat roofed hypostyle prayer hall towards MeccaQibla wall - mihrabMihrab = niche for holy place, such as Torah scrolls in a synagogue or niche for Roman god statue
16Muqarnas are unique to Islam Know & recognize these 3 characteristic arches/niches from Islamic architectureMuqarnas are unique to IslamOften stacked and used in multiples, very intricate and dazzling to the eyeSometimes vault domes, or used as part of a mihrabSEE EXAMPLES ON NEXT PAGESArtist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: Arches and MuqarnasMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Arches and Muqarnas: horseshoe arch, pointed arch, muqarnas
17Tile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan Medium: Glazed and cut tilesSize: 11'3" X 7'6"14th century IranThe Metropolitan Museum of ArtOne of finest examples of early architectural ceramic decoration3 inscriptions: outer in cursive, Qur’an verses about 5 Pillars of Islam.Inner Kufic sayings of prophetCenter panel: line in Kufic says“The mosque is the house of every pious person.”FLASHCARDTile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, IsfahanMedium: Glazed and cut tilesSize: 11'3" X 7'6" (3.43 X 2.29 m)Date: Founded 1354Source/Museum: Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFLASHCARDArtist: n/aTitle: Tile Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, IsfahanMedium: Glazed and cut tilesSize: 11'3" X 7'6" (3.43 X 2.29 m)Date: Founded 1354Source/Museum: Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund (39.20)
18Minbar (pulpit)Example of beautiful wood and ivory inlaid Minbar from mosque in Cairo, Egypt (15th Century)Artist: n/aTitle: Aerial view of Haram Al-Sharif, JerusalemMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/a
19Qibla wall from Sultan Hasan Madrasa-Mausoleum-Mosque Cairo Egypt14th centuryArtist: n/aTitle: Qibla wall with mihrab and minbar, Sultan Hasan Madrasa-Mausoleum-Mosque ComplexMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 1356–63Source/Museum: Main iwan (vaulted chamber) in the mosque, Cairo, EgyptExample of elaborate Qibla (prayer wall) with minbar (pulpit), mihrab (niche)
20Prayer Hall, Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain Spanish Umayyad dynasty, 8th centuryFlashcardEmir was patron of artsCordoba was capitalAppropriated former Christian church from VisigothsExpanded by later rulersHypostyle prayer hall marble columnsHorseshoe arches (adopted from Romans!)Alternating red brick and white stone voussoirs in the curved archDomes were beautiful mosaics done by master Byzantine artists; trade diplomacy and competition in the medeival MediterraneanArtist: n/aTitle: Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, SpainMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Begun 785–86Source/Museum: n/a
21Dome of Great Mosque of Cordoba, in front of the mihrab Note intricate mosaicsIslamic interest in mathematics & geometryArtist: n/aTitle: Dome in front of the Mihrab, Great MosqueMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 965Source/Museum: n/a
22Student presentations on Mosque of Cordoba here Artist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: Mosque Plans (Hypostyle Mosque)Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Hypostyle mosque: Great Mosque, Cordoba, after extension by al-Hakam II
23Students will discuss this with the class. Note dome, and minarets Sultan Selim MosqueArtist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: Mosque Plans (Centrally-Planned Mosque)Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Centrally-planned mosque: Sultan Selim Mosque, Edirne
24Mosque of Sultan Selim, Edirne Ottoman Empire, 16th century TurkeyArchitect Sinan (for Suleyman the Magnificent)FlashcardMinarets almost 300’ high, only 12’ in diameterOnly royal mosques allowed multiple minaretsArtist: n/aTitle: Mosque of Sultan Selim, EdirneMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 1568–75Source/Museum: TurkeySquare base transitioned to central dome with corner half domesGigantic hemispheric dome larger than Hagia SophiaComplex held mosque, madrasa, hospittal, kitchens, market, bathsCentral plan with fountain (see plans)
25Mosque of Sultan Selim Edirne Interior of dome ofMosque of Sultan Selim EdirneSTUDENTS PRESENT THISArtist: n/aTitle: Interior, Mosque of Sultan SelimMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Turkey
26Congregational Mosque, Isfahan Developed in Iran Four Iwan Mosque planCongregational Mosque, IsfahanDeveloped in IranIwan = huge, barrel vaulted walls with arch entrancesCross-axial emphasisCentral courtyardQibla is the prayer wallKNOW THIS VOCABULARYArtist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: Mosque Plans (Four-Iwan Mosque)Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Four-iwan mosque: Congresgrational Mosque, Isfahan
27Great Mosque of Ishafan (Iran) Note iwan walls with vaulted entrances Mosaic tile decorationMinaretsFour iwan plan17th century, lots of additions sinceArtist: n/aTitle: Courtyard, Masjid-I Jami, Isfahan IranMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 11th–18th century 14th-century iwan vault, 17th-century minaretsSource/Museum: Iran
28Calligraphy Students will present Art of fine hand lettering Qur’an word of god- must be written with devotion & embellishmentVerbal information & aesthetics
29Arabic manuscript page Kufic headings Naskhi (Iran) scripts Calligraphers enjoyed very high status, included women and princes20 cursive scripts in use by the 10th centuryQur’an usually wrote on parchment or vellumArtist: Attributed to GalinusTitle: Arabic manuscript pageMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 1199Source/Museum: Iraq. / Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris
30Artist: n/aTitle: Page from the Qur'an (Surah II: 286 and Title Surah III) in kufic scriptMedium: Black ink pigments, and gold on vellumSize: 8⅜ X 11⅛" (21.8 X 29.2 cm)Date: 9th centurySource/Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1937 ( )
31Ceramics & Glassware Students will present Samarkand Fritware Figurative embellishment, especially when illuminated manuscripts & books popular
32Border is Kufic script; Samarkand ceramics had a beautiful white ground like Chinese porcelain.Border is Kufic script;Calligraphy often used for decoration as well as text.Artist: n/aTitle: Bowl with kufic borderMedium: Earthenware with slip, pigment, and lead glazeSize: diameter 14½" (37 cm)Date: 9th–10th centurySource/Museum: Samarkand, Uzbekistan. / Musée du Louvre, Paris.
33Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp, Syria or Egypt, 14th century Glass, polychrome enamel, goldEgyptians produced 1st glass in 2nd millenium BCE13th century CE artistic exchanges in Italy, Syria, Egypt developed new molding and blowing techniquesUsed for mosquesKuranic inscription: God is the light of the heavens.European heraldry symbolsFLASHCARD - DISCUSS INFLUENCES, FIGURATIVE IMAGERY, ETC.Artist: n/aTitle: Mamluk glass oil lampMedium: Glass, polychrome enamel, and goldSize: height 12" (30.5 cm)Date: c. 1355Source/Museum: Syria or Egypt. Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York. ( )
35Painted fritware, incised 1215-1216, Iran The Macy JugCeramicPainted fritware, incised, IranNow at Metropolitan Museum of ArtFLASHCARD IMAGETechnique to produce lustrous metallic surface on fired ceramicPainted dense, elaborate patterns of animals, foliage, etc.Originally FRITWARE used for beads in ancient EgyptArtist: n/aTitle: The Macy JugMedium: Composite body glazed, painted fritware and incised (glaze partially stained with cobalt), with pierced outer shellSize: 6 ⅝ X 7 ¾" (16.8 X 19.7 cm)Date: 1215–16Source/Museum: Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Fletcher Fund, 1932 ( )
37“Oriental” Rugs Students will present Worldwide popularity even through todayKnotted carpets date back 4th century BCESilk weaving exchange with China (China Silk Road)Paradise & garden associations
38Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa Silk tapestry weave with gilt parchment Trophy taken by Christian King Ferdinand III.. Detail of center sectionCalligraphic panelsArtist: n/aTitle: Banner of Las Navas de TolosaMedium: Silk tapestry-weave with gilt parchmentSize: 10'9 ⅞" X 7'2 ⅝" (3.3 X 2.2 m)Date: 1212–50Source/Museum: Detail of center panel, from southern Spain. / Museo de Telas Medievales, Monasterio de Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Spain
39“Oriental” Rugs Rugs used for Muslim prayer Knotted rugs technique passed down thru generations
40Note patterns which reverse symmetry Medallion RugStar Ushak StyleNote patterns which reverse symmetryInfinite arabesque that repeats in all directionsArtist: n/aTitle: Medallion Rug, variant Star Ushak styleMedium: WoolSize: 10'3" X 7'6 ¼" (313.7 X cm)Date: 16th centurySource/Museum: Anatolia (present-day Turkey). / The St. Louis Art Museum. Gift of James F. Ballard
41Artist: n/aTitle: A woman weavingMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/a
42Artist: n/aTitle: Technique: carpet makingMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: a. Kilim weaving pattern used in flat-weaving, b. Symmetrical knot, used extensively in Iran, c. Asymmetrical knot, used extensively in Turkey
43Art of the Book Students will present Parallels illuminated manuscripts in EuropeMore figurative embellishment allowedPersian miniaturesIslamic emphasis on Qur’an
44Qur’an Frontspiece, Cairo Egypt, 1368 CE. Nonfigural designs from Mamluk EgyptIntricate designs paralleledWhat????Artist: n/aTitle: Qur’an frontispiece (right half of two-page spread)Medium: Ink, pigments, and gold on paperSize: 24 X 18" (61 X 45.7 cm)Date: c. 1368Source/Museum: Cairo, Egypt. / National Library, Cairo. Ms. 7.
45Caliph Harun Al Rashid Visits Turkish Bath Kamal al Din-Bihzad From Herart School of Miniature painting in western AfghanistanBihzad paintings illustrated Khamsa Five Poems.Bathhouse accepted from Roman society in Islamic world in Turkey, Jordan.Artist: Kamal al-Din BihzadTitle: The Caliph Harun Al-Rashid Visits the Turkish BathMedium: Ink and pigments on paperSize: approx. 7 X 6" (17.8 X 15.3 cm)Date: c. 1494Source/Museum: From a copy of the 12th-century Khamsa (Five Poems) of Nizami. Herat, Afghanistan. / The British Library, London. Oriental and India office Collections (Ms. Or. 6810, fol. 27v)
46Another Bihzad miniature Shirin sees Khusraus Portrait Artist: n/aTitle: The Portrait of Khusrau Shown to ShirinMedium: Ink, pigments, and gold on paperSize: 9⅞ X 6¾" (25 X 17 cm)Date: c. 1494Source/Museum: From a copy of the 12th-century Khamsa (Five Poems) of Nizami.Herat, Afghanistan. / The British Library, London
47Tugra of Sultan Suleyman Istanbul, Turkey16th Century, Ottoman EmpireInk, paint, and gold on paperTugras combined the ruler’s name with the phrase Eternally VictoriousTugras appeared on seals, coints, buildings, edictsBody design may have been inspired by Chinese ceramicsFLASHCARDSArtist: n/aTitle: Illuminated Tugra of Sultan SuleymanMedium: Ink, paint, and gold on paperSize: removed from a firman and trimmed to 20½ X 25⅜" (52 X 64.5 cm)Date: c. 1555–60Source/Museum: Istanbul, Turkey. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1938 ( )
48Recognize Court of the Lions FlashcardRecognize Court of the LionsArtist: n/aTitle: Court of the Lions, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, GranadaMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 1354–91Source/Museum: SpainCourt of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain; 14th CenturyCity of Gardens .. Islamic palace set in gardens. Complex citadel with dramatic views, miradors (lookout windows). Beautiful ceiling with clustered muqarnas8 pointed star ceiling (next image)
49Muqarnas Dome, hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, AlhambraArtist: n/aTitle: Muqarnas Dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Palace of the Lions, AlhambraMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Built between 1354–91Source/Museum: n/a