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Ancient Roman Architecture Pantheon. Pantheon: Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 27-25 B.C.E. Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Roman Architecture Pantheon. Pantheon: Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 27-25 B.C.E. Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Roman Architecture Pantheon

2 Pantheon: Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, B.C.E. Original building built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, B.C.E. Destroyed by fire in 80 A.D. Destroyed by fire in 80 A.D. Rebuilt approx. A.D. 125 by Emperor Hadrian Rebuilt approx. A.D. 125 by Emperor Hadrian Inscription from original building added: M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIUM FECIT: “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate.” Inscription from original building added: M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIUM FECIT: “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate.”

3 Piazza della Rotunda – Stolen Egyptian Obelisk Photo: M. Griffin

4 Pantheon Exterior Exterior: Looking at the exterior, you get a very different impression from that of the interior. Exterior: Looking at the exterior, you get a very different impression from that of the interior. Cella (walled room to house the statue of the god): looks like a simple drum shape topped by a low dome. Cella (walled room to house the statue of the god): looks like a simple drum shape topped by a low dome. Porch (Portico): square shape with three rows of columns in front of the entrance; topped by pediment. Porch (Portico): square shape with three rows of columns in front of the entrance; topped by pediment.

5 Photo: M. Griffin Exterior View: Portico and Cella

6 View from inside Portico with Corinthian Columns

7 Ground level: has risen since ancient Roman times; has risen since ancient Roman times; entrance steps are now submerged so that the whole building looks more short and squat than it would have in ancient times. entrance steps are now submerged so that the whole building looks more short and squat than it would have in ancient times.

8 View of Pantheon Cella exterior with modern street level observable on the left Photo: M. Griffin

9 Pantheon: best preserved interior of any ancient Roman structure. Saved from destruction when converted to church in 7 th Century C.E. Saved from destruction when converted to church in 7 th Century C.E. Still in use as church today. Still in use as church today. Unchanged from Roman Times: Unchanged from Roman Times: Columns Columns Floor Floor Colored marble paneling of walls Colored marble paneling of walls Coffered ceiling (except for bronze or gilt covering) Coffered ceiling (except for bronze or gilt covering)

10 Christian Altar Photo: M. Griffin

11 Christian Statue of Mother and Child (In niche probably once occupied by statue of Roman god) Photo: M. Griffin

12 Unchanged from Ancient Rome: Floor Columns Marble Panels (multi-colored) Photo: M. Griffin

13 Unchanged from Roman Times: Coffered ceiling (with sunken panels)

14 Dome Romans – highly skilled with concrete Romans – highly skilled with concrete Largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world; Largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world; Remained the largest dome in the world for at least a thousand years. Remained the largest dome in the world for at least a thousand years. Concrete becomes thinner toward the top of the dome (20 ft. thick at bottom; 6 feet at top); Concrete becomes thinner toward the top of the dome (20 ft. thick at bottom; 6 feet at top); Concrete near the top may even be made with lighter materials (e.g. pumice) Concrete near the top may even be made with lighter materials (e.g. pumice)

15 Occulus (Eye) Occulus – circular opening at top of dome; Occulus – circular opening at top of dome; symbolic of the sun; symbolic of the sun; open to the sky; open to the sky; 143 feet above the floor; 143 feet above the floor; 7.8 meters across. 7.8 meters across.

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