Presentation on theme: "Islamic Art Inside Mecca by National Geographic play: beginning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Islamic Art Inside Mecca by National Geographic play: beginning 5:00-7:0014:10-17:3024:00-26:3046:00….
2 Calligraphy: reverence for the Koran as the Word of God extends to the act of writing the Koran—generations of scribes transformed the writing of the Koran into an art form—into calligraphyArabic Script is written from the right to the lefteach of its letters takes one of three forms depending on it’s position in the wordthis system of writing lends itself to many variationsmost early Korans had only three to five lines per page because the writing had to be large because the books were sharedbecause calligraphy was an honored occupation, calligraphers enjoyed the highest status of all artists in Islamic society
3 Illuminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman, from Istanbul, Turkey cink, paint, and gold on paperIlluminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman, from Istanbul, Turkeycink, paint, and gold on paper**How can a ruler make sure that the power at the center of the empire is deployed at its edges?**What is the function of this work of art?The Islamic Ottoman Empire was moving from being a military world to an administrative one. Suleiman the Magnificent was a contemporary of Henry VIII in England and Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.The tugra becomes a way that Suleiman the Magnificent can make sure that his power is deployed all the way to the edges of his empire. He issued over 150,000 edicts/laws/directives—each one born his tugra.a tugra – is an imperial emblem ; in an Ottoman tugra the ruler’s name is combined with his title—khan (lord), his father’s name, and the motto eternally victorious”the tugra symbolizes the authority of the sultana firman is an imperial edict that supplements Muslim lawalways three long vertical lines to the right of two horizontal teardropsfill decoration– merges abstraction with naturalism –a tiny meadow of flowersboldness with delicacyrejoices in natural forms while avoiding the human figurepolitical power with patronagefunction (utilitarian and symbolic) with adornment
4 Illuminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman c. 1555-1560 ink, paint, and gold on paper
5 Illuminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman c. 1555-1560 ink, paint, and gold on paper
6 Illuminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman c. 1555-1560 A History of the World in 100 Objects episode #71Illuminated tugra of Sultan Suleyman cink, paint, and gold on paper
15 Mosaic mihrab from the Madrasa Imami (restored) 1354 CE Isfahan 11'3" x 7'6",mihrab niche - a niche which signifies a holy placeapse in a churchshrine for Torah scrolls in a synagogueframe for the sculpture of gods or ancestors in Roman architectureThe most important element in any mosque is the mihrab, the niche that indicates the direction of Mecca. Because it functions as the focal point in prayer ritual, its decoration was executed with great skill and devotion. This example from the Madrasa Imami in Isfahan, founded in 755 A.H./1354 A.D., is composed of a mosaic of small glazed tiles fitted together to form various geometric and floral patterns and inscriptions. The inscriptional frieze in muhaqqaq script containing sura IX:14–22 from the Qur’an runs from the bottom right to the bottom left; a second inscription, in kufic script, with sayings of the Prophet, borders the pointed arch of the niche; and a third inscription, in cursive, is set in a frame at the center of the niche. The bottom of the niche, just below the central inscription, and a substantial part of the beginning and end of the main inscription were restored by skillful potters in Isfahan in the mid-1920s. Source: Mihrab [Isfahan, Iran] (39.20) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of ArtThis mosaic mihrab (prayer niche) from the Madrasa Imami (school for advanced study by Imams) has been restored in its location in the ancient capital of Isfahan, in Persia. It is made of glazed and painted ceramic on plaster using a painstaking process of cutting each piece of tile, including the pieces that make up the kufic inscription around the frame of the niche. Each niche would have had a copy of the Koran for reciting verses, and each was oriented to face Mecca for daily prayers and meditations. The use of a rich cobalt blue underglaze is evident. Persia has always been a rich source of raw cobalt, and this material was traded throughout the region and into China. Such architectural elements would travel with the spread of Islam across Northern Africa and into Spain, and can be seen in throughout Andalusia (Southern Spain) in mosques in cities such as Granada, Ronda, Malaga, Cordoba, and Seville.
16 a muqarna – a squinch (pendetives and squinches convert a square into a circle)—used in multiples as interlocking, load bearing, niche-shaped vaulting unitsappear as facted surfacesa muqarna
21 the oldest surviving Islamic sanctuary holiest site in Islam after Mecca and MedinaJudaism: Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son IsaacChristian: site associated with e creation of Adamand the Temple built by Solomon
24 interior, Dome of the Rock c. 687-691 pilgrims must first walk around the central space first clockwise and then counter clock wise to read the inscriptions in gold mosaic on a turquoise groundthese texts are the first use of monumental Koranic inscriptions in architectural decorationinterior, Dome of the Rock c