2Medieval Painting: Major Styles Byzantine (iconography)Portrayed people as stiff and expressionless, with blank eyesFlat, two dimensional figures – unrealisticHuman body was considered sinful; it had to be covered at all timesFocus wasn’t on the individual but rather the celebration of God’Illuminated ManuscriptsBook where text is supplemented by addition of decoration (initial letters, borders, etc)Style was based on animal imagery, combined with an intricate interlacing of geometric linesCreated and drawn by monks, priestsIlluminated Bible page (closeup)
3Medieval Art: Religious Themes St. Francis’ Rule ApprovedGiotto?Tempera (egg yolk mixed with pigment) on wood and ground gold.QuestionsGlowing head?Realistic?Depth perception?
4Medieval Art: Religious Themes The EpiphanyGiotto1320Tempera on wood and ground gold.QuestionsGlowing head?Depth?
5Medieval Art: Religious Themes The CrucifixionGiotto (1305)Tempera on wood and ground gold.QuestionsRealism?Glowing heads?Depth?
6Characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art 1. Bright colors & oil paints2. Concentrated on realismNatural poses were life-like, realistic – like the GREEKS!!!Showed personality & emotionExpulsion from the GardenMasaccio1427First nudes since classical times
7(Della Pittura – Alberti) Perspective(Della Pittura – Alberti)• Use of perspective• Shadowing created illusion of depth• Made distant items smaller
18Adoration of the Magi Whole Medici family in picture Botticelli on far right looking at viewers
19Florence Under the Medici The Medici PalaceMedici Chapel
20Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436 ArchitectHired to design the dome of St. Maria del Fiore (cathedral)
21Filippo Brunelleschi Used the ancient Romans’ architectural concepts Before starting, he travelled around Italy for inspirationUsed the ancient Romans’ architectural conceptsHe studied the ancient Pantheon in RomeUsed ribs to support dome
22Brunelleschi – Architect Built lightweight innerdome, then exterior domeof wind resistant materialDimensions: 137 feet acrossWeight: 40,785 tons containingover four million bricksTime to construct: 16 years
28The School of Athens – Raphael, details Plato: pointing to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm].Aristotle: pointing to the earth [the here and now].
29Details, School of Athens MichelangeloDetails, School of AthensRaphael
30Euclid- Features of Bramante \SocratesDetails, School of Athens
31School of Athens-Raphael Plato and Aristotle on either side of center axisPlato points skyward to indicate his idealistic worldviewAristotle gestures to ground to show his concern with the real worldMetaphysical philosophers on Plato’s sidePhysical scientists on Aristotle’s sideRaphael on extreme rightFigures grouped and placed on purpose
32“Study of the Gradations Leonardo da Vinci“Self portrait”“Study of Hands”“Study of the Gradationsof shadows”