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Chapter 5 pages 82 - 93 Warm up Warm up Define deformation Define deformation Exit Exit Explain how isostatic adjustment works Explain how isostatic adjustment.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 pages 82 - 93 Warm up Warm up Define deformation Define deformation Exit Exit Explain how isostatic adjustment works Explain how isostatic adjustment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 pages Warm up Warm up Define deformation Define deformation Exit Exit Explain how isostatic adjustment works Explain how isostatic adjustment works Objectives Objectives We will be able to predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. We will be able to predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. Homework Homework Chapter 5 Vocabulary – Define terms – give a fact Chapter 5 Vocabulary – Define terms – give a fact Read pages Read pages 82-93

2 Vocabulary Chapter 5; define and write sentence or draw 1. Deformation 2. Isostasy 3. Isostatic adjustment 4. Stress 5. Strain 6. Compression 7. Tension 8. Shearing 9. Folding 10. anticline 11. syncline 12. Monocline 13. Fault 14. fracture 15. Hanging wall 16. footwall 17. Normal fault 18. Reverse fault 19. Thrust fault 20. Strike-slip fault 21. Mountain belt 22. Mountain range 23. Mountain system 24. Plateau 25. Volcanic mountain 26. Graben 27. Folded mountain 28. Dome mountain 29. Fault-block mountain 30. Fault PLane

3 California Science Content Standards Covered: Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth's surface. As the basis for understanding this concept: Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth's surface. As the basis for understanding this concept: 3C: Students know how to explain the physical properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they were formed, including plate tectonic processes 3C: Students know how to explain the physical properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they were formed, including plate tectonic processes

4 Objectives chapter 5.1 predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. Identify sources of stress in crustal rock. Identify sources of stress in crustal rock.

5 predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. The principle of isostatic adjustment The principle of isostatic adjustment When the crust becomes heavier, it sinks; when it becomes lighter, it rises When the crust becomes heavier, it sinks; when it becomes lighter, it rises Stress is the amount of force per unit area that is placed on a given materials. Stress causes strain Stress is the amount of force per unit area that is placed on a given materials. Stress causes strain Strain is a change in the shape or volume of rock Strain is a change in the shape or volume of rock

6 predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. Isostasy is the balancing of two forces Isostasy is the balancing of two forces Ex: Two block floating in the water Ex: Two block floating in the water When it comes to the Earth’s crust, a landform (e.g. a mountain, glacier) can cause the lithosphere to BEND – this bending is called an ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENT When it comes to the Earth’s crust, a landform (e.g. a mountain, glacier) can cause the lithosphere to BEND – this bending is called an ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENT

7 predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. As ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENTS occur, the crust is bent – thus the DEFORMATION OF THE CRUST As ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENTS occur, the crust is bent – thus the DEFORMATION OF THE CRUST Examples: Mountain ranges, rivers, glaciers Examples: Mountain ranges, rivers, glaciers

8 Identify sources of stress in crustal rock. 2 causes of STRESS 2 causes of STRESS Isostatic Adjustment Isostatic Adjustment Tectonic Plate Movement Tectonic Plate Movement Strain is the ACTUAL change in the shape of rocks, CAUSED by STRESS Strain is the ACTUAL change in the shape of rocks, CAUSED by STRESS 3 types of STRAIN 3 types of STRAIN Compression – push together Compression – push together Tension – pull apart Tension – pull apart Shear – tear apart Shear – tear apart

9 Identify sources of stress in crustal rock. The three main types of stress The three main types of stress Compression – rocks squeezed together Compression – rocks squeezed together tension – rocks pulled apart tension – rocks pulled apart shearing – rocks bent, twisted, broken apart. shearing – rocks bent, twisted, broken apart. Contrast the isostatic adjustment that might result from the melting of glacial ice with the isostatic adjustment that a large river emptying into the ocean might cause Contrast the isostatic adjustment that might result from the melting of glacial ice with the isostatic adjustment that a large river emptying into the ocean might cause

10 Plate Boundaries & The Stress of Strain

11 Objectives chapter 5.1 predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness of the earth’s crust. Identify sources of stress in crustal rock. Identify sources of stress in crustal rock.

12 Vocabulary Chapter 5 Section 2 1. Folding 2. anticline 3. syncline 4. Monocline 5. Fault 6. Fault fracture 7. Hanging wall 8. footwall 9. Normal fault 10. Reverse fault 11. Thrust fault 12. Strike-slip fault

13 Objectives chapter 5.2 Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. Describe four types of faults. Describe four types of faults.

14 Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. Folding is what results when rock responds to stress by permanently deforming without breaking Folding is what results when rock responds to stress by permanently deforming without breakingwhatrockwhatrock Faulting is more likely to occur near the surface than deep within the earth Faulting is more likely to occur near the surface than deep within the earth Pressure are too high deep within the earth for faulting to occur Pressure are too high deep within the earth for faulting to occur Temperature allows the rock to flow more easily Temperature allows the rock to flow more easily

15 Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. 3 types of Folds 3 types of Folds Anticline Anticline Syncline Syncline Monocline Monocline

16 Describe four types of faults. Describe four types of faults Describe four types of faults Normal: Normal: Reverse fault: Reverse fault: Thrust fault: Thrust fault: Strike-slip fault: Strike-slip fault:

17 Describe four types of faults. Normal Fault Normal Fault Reverse Fault Reverse Fault

18 Describe four types of faults. Thrust Fault Thrust Fault Strike-slip Fault Strike-slip Fault

19 Objectives chapter 5.2 Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. Compare folding and faulting as responses to stress. Describe four types of faults. Describe four types of faults.

20 Vocabulary Chapter 5 Section 3 1. Mountain belt 2. Mountain range 3. Mountain system 4. Plateau 5. Volcanic mountain 6. Graben 7. Folded mountain 8. Dome mountain 9. Fault-block mountain

21 Objectives chapter 5.3 Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them.

22 Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions Oceanic-Oceanic Oceanic-Oceanic An oceanic plate subducts below an oceanic plate. The water trapped under pressure melts part of the subducting lithosphere. This magma rises on the ocean floor forming an island arch of Volcanoes. Japan, Fiji, and Mariana are all examples.

23 Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions Oceanic-Continental Oceanic-Continental Oceanic plate is subducted under a continental plate. this causes large scale compression, form large mountains. there is some melting of the subducting plate, that may produce volcanic mountains. Some mountains may have been formed from micro- terranes.

24 Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions 3 Different Types of Plate Collisions Continental-Continental Continental-Continental When continental plate is subducted under another continental plate. Large scale compression forms extremely high mountains, Himalayas. Region is prone to large earthquakes.

25 Chapter 5.3 Notes Name the four types of mountains and explain how each is formed Name the four types of mountains and explain how each is formedfour mountainsfour mountains Folded- Folded- Fault block- Fault block- Volcanic- Volcanic- Dome- Dome-

26 Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Folded Moutains Folded Moutains Tectonic plates collide, raising Mtns and large flat areas called plateaus Tectonic plates collide, raising Mtns and large flat areas called plateaus Ex: Himalayas Ex: Himalayas

27 Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Fault-Block Mtns & Grabens Fault-Block Mtns & Grabens Mtns formed when the crust breaks into pieces allowing blocks to sink relative to others Mtns formed when the crust breaks into pieces allowing blocks to sink relative to others

28 Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Volcanic Mountain Formation Volcanic Mountain Formation Mtns that form when molten rock erupts ONTO the crust of the Earth Mtns that form when molten rock erupts ONTO the crust of the Earth

29 Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Dome Mountain Formation Dome Mountain Formation Mountains that form when molten rock does not erupt onto the crust of the Earth Mountains that form when molten rock does not erupt onto the crust of the Earth

30 Objectives chapter 5.3 Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. Identify the types of plate collisions that build mountains. Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them. Identify four types of mountains and discuss the forces that shaped them.


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