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1 Head-Mounted Display Sherman & Craig, pp. 151-159.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Head-Mounted Display Sherman & Craig, pp. 151-159."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Head-Mounted Display Sherman & Craig, pp

2 2 Visually Coupled Systems A system that integrates the natural visual and motor skills of an operator into the system he is controlling. Basic Components An immersive visual display (HMD, large screen projection (CAVE), dome projection) A means of tracking head and/or eye motion A source of visual information that is dependent on the user's head/eye motion.

3 3 Head-Mounted Displays Optical System Image Source (CRT or Flat Panel (LCD)) See–Through or Non–See–Through Mounting Apparatus What are some factors? What are some factors?EyeglassesWeight Solutions? Solutions?Earphones Position Tracker

4 4 Field of View Monocular FOV is the angular subtense (usually expressed in degrees) of the displayed image as measured from the pupil of one eye. Total FOV is the total angular size of the displayed image visible to both eyes. Binocular(or stereoscopic) FOV refers to the part of the displayed image visible to both eyes. FOV may be measured horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

5 5 Focal Length & Diopter Focal Length - The distance from the surface of a lens (or mirror) at which rays of light converge. Diopter - The power of a lens is measured in diopters, where the number of diopters is equal to 1/(focal length of the lens measured in meters).

6 6 Ocularity Ocularity Monocular - HMD image goes to only one eye. Biocular - Same HMD image to both eyes. Binocular (stereoscopic) - Different but matched images to each eye.

7 7 IPD Interpupillary Distance (IPD) IPD is the horizontal distance between a user's eyes. IPD is the distance between the two optical axes in a binocular view system.

8 8 Vignetting and Eye Relief Vignetting The blocking or redirecting of light rays as they pass through the optical system. Eye Relief Distance Distance from the last optical surface in the HMD optical system to the front surface of the eye.

9 9 Basic Eye Cornea Crystalline Lens Fovea Retina Optic Nerve

10 10 The Eye Accommodation - Term used to describe the altering of the curvature of the crystalline lens by means of the ciliary muscles. Expressed in diopters. Retina - The sensory membrane that lines the back of the eye and receives the image formed by the lens of the eye. Fovea - The part of the human retina that possesses the best spatial resolution or visual acuity. Cornea Crystalline Lens Fovea Retina Optic Nerve

11 11 Properties of the Eye Approximate Field of View 120 degrees vertical 120 degrees vertical 150 degrees horizontal (one eye) 150 degrees horizontal (one eye) 200 degrees horizontal (both eyes) 200 degrees horizontal (both eyes)Acuity 30 cycles per degree (20/20 Snellen acuity). 30 cycles per degree (20/20 Snellen acuity).

12 12 Simple Formulas Visual Resolution in Cycles per degree (V res ) = Number of pixels /2(FoV in degrees) Example: (1024 pixels per line)/(2*40 degrees) = Horizontal resolution of 12.8 cycles per degree To convert to Snellen acuity (as in 20/xx) V res = 600/xx (20/47)

13 13 Optical System Move image to a distance that can be easily accommodated by the eye. Magnify the image

14 14 Simple Magnifier HMD Design p q Eyepiece (one or more lenses) Display (Image Source) Eye f Image 1/p + 1/q = 1/f where p = object distance (distance from image source to eyepiece) q = image distance (distance of image from the lens) f = focal length of the lens

15 15 Thin Lens Equation 1/p + 1/q = 1/f where p = object distance (distance from image source to eyepiece) q = image distance (distance of image from the lens) f = focal length of the lens Conventions: If the incident light comes from the object, we say it is a real object, and define the distance from the lens to it as positive. Otherwise, it is virtual and the distance is negative. If the emergent light goes toward the image, we say it is a real image, and define the distance from the lens to it as positive. f = positive for a converging lens A light ray through the center of the lens is undeflected.

16 16 Virtual Image LensDisplay Virtual Image

17 17 Resolution (low) 160 x 120 color pixels per eye (high) x Note that resolution and FOV are independent Another important factor: pixel density Pixels per degree of FOV Pixels per degree of FOV

18 18 LEEP Optics Large Expanse Extra Perspective Give very wide field of view for stereoscopic images Higher resolution (more pixels) in the middle of the field of view, lower resolution on the periphery Pincushion distortion

19 19 Fresnel Lens A lens that has a surface consisting of a concentric series of simple lens sections so that a thin lens with a short focal length and large diameter is possible More even resolution distribution Less distortion from lanternroom.com

20 20 Relationship between angle and screen distance

21 21 Distortion in LEEP Optics A rectangle Maps to this How would you correct this?

22 22 To correct for distortion Must predistort image This is a pixel-based distortion Graphics rendering uses linear interpolation! Too slow on most systems Pixel shaders! Render to Texture

23 23 Distorted Field of View Your computational model (computer graphics) assumes some field of view. Scan converter may over or underscan, not all of your graphics image may appear on the screen. Are the display screens aligned perpendicular to your optical axis?

24 24 Distance along z-axis Distorted FoV (cont.)

25 25 Collimated: p=f 1/p + 1/q = 1/f q = , if p=f If the image source is placed at the focal point of the lens, then the virtual image appears at optical infinity. f

26 26 Compound Microscope HMD Design Relay lens produces a real image of the display image source (screen) at some intermediate location in the optical train. The eyepiece is then used to produce an observable virtual image of this intermediate image. Relay Lens Image Intermediate Real Image Eyepiece Exit Pupil

27 27 Exit Pupil The area in back of the optics from which the entire image can be seen. Important if IPD not adjustable. Compound microscope optical systems have a real exit pupil. Simple magnifier optical systems do not have an exit pupil. Relay Lens Image Intermediate Real Image Eyepiece Exit Pupil

28 28 Virtual Research V8 HMD Display Dual 1.3” diagonal Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays Dual 1.3” diagonal Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays Resolution per eye: 640 x 480 (307,200 color elements) Resolution per eye: 640 x 480 (307,200 color elements) focal length = 1m focal length = 1m Optical Optical Field of view: 60° diagonal Field of view: 60° diagonalSolve What is the cycles per degree? What is the cycles per degree? What is its horizontal and vertical field of view? What is its horizontal and vertical field of view?Pros/Cons

29 29 Characteristics of HMDs Immersive You are inside the computer world You are inside the computer world Can interact with real world (mouse, keyboard, people) Can interact with real world (mouse, keyboard, people) Mask out real world Mask out real worldErgonomics Length of use is limited, cue conflict!!! (accomodation vs. parallax, perspective, etc.) Length of use is limited, cue conflict!!! (accomodation vs. parallax, perspective, etc.) Resolution and field of view Tethered

30 30 Exercise (Part of Quiz grade) Due: October 20 th (Thursday) Fill in the following table through research on the Internet: Virtual Research V8ForteVFX5DT HMD 800 SonyGlasstronPLM-A35 1 column for best unit found for each category Resolution (RGB pixels) FOV (d, w, h) Distance from eye to Virtual Image Stereo? Price Weight Pros Cons


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