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The Renaissance. Renaissance: AD 1350-1600 I. New Values Shaped the Renaissance A. Love of classical learning –Greek statue: –Hermes and Dionysus c. 340BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance. Renaissance: AD 1350-1600 I. New Values Shaped the Renaissance A. Love of classical learning –Greek statue: –Hermes and Dionysus c. 340BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance

2 Renaissance: AD I. New Values Shaped the Renaissance A. Love of classical learning –Greek statue: –Hermes and Dionysus c. 340BCE

3 New Values A.Classic al Learning: Greeks and Romans B. Celebration of the individual C. Bringing out man’s divinity; D. _______________________ E. _______________________

4 D. More interest in the natural world E. Enjoyment of worldly and secular pleasures humor good food entertainment

5 What was humanism?? –Scholarly study of Latin and Greek classics –Learning/education for all (ideally) –“Studia humanitatis” 1 st humanists were orators and poets Used vernacular and classical languagesUsed vernacular and classical languages Went directly to original sources…classical and biblical (i.e. __________ sources)Went directly to original sources…classical and biblical (i.e. __________ sources) –A variety of knowledge is the ideal

6 Left: By Donatello (bronze first full scale nude since Ancient Roman era) 1409 Right: by Michelangelo 1504

7 Florence’s “Il Duomo” on the Santa Maria Del Fiore

8 Palazzo VecchioPalazzo Vecchio

9 Views Designed to Highlight City Government

10 Ferrara, Italy

11 Lucca Originally EtruscanOriginally Etruscan

12 - Palmanova Built late 1500s

13 Dome for St. Peter’s Basilica As designed by Michelangelo, the drum was completed by his death in 1564, but the dome on top was slightly redesigned by Giacomo della Porta afterwards.

14 II. Renaissance began in Northern Italy A. The Black Death further damaged feudal ties B. Towns became cities –Genoa, Venice and Florence – 100,000 each –Pisa, Mantua, Milan C. Banking, textiles and trade encouraged independence D. Byzantine scholarship enters its ports Greek and Arab learning

15 Centers of trade and interaction spur… –intellectual activity –economic growth –artistic creativity

16 C. Defeat of Holy Roman Empire at Battle of Legnano (1176) - illustrated new cities’ growing independence C. The Lombard League had Established Town Power

17 D. Merchants depended on their wits, not feudal ties 1.Wealthy merchants sought beautiful things 2.They competed over sponsoring artists 3.Medici’s of Florence find Ghiberti, Michelangelo –Cosimo il Vecchio Lorenzo

18 1. The MediciFamily a)Cosimo… a)astute statesman b)controlled city behind the scenes b)Lorenzo the magnificent a)ruled b)cautious and determined c)great patron of the arts “ Whoever wants to be happy,“ Whoever wants to be happy, let him be so: about tomorrow there's no knowing.” — Lorenzo The Magnificent — Lorenzo The Magnificent

19 III. Early writers and artists Break through artistic barriers A.Giotto di Bondone paints more lifelike figures in Padua –New expressions –And more colors

20 Giotto’s “Mourning of Christ” 1305

21 “The Adoration of the Magi” by Giotto

22 Giotto’s epitaph “I am he through whose merit the lost art of painting was revived…But what need is there for words? I am Giotto, and my name alone tells more than a lengthy ode.”

23 III. Early important writers B. Dante writes the Divine Comedy about a journey into afterlife VirgilBeatrice C. Petrarch writes poetry D. Castiglione writes of the well-rounded man

24 Individually, then in groups … Read over documentsRead over documents Circle evidence of new renaissance valuesCircle evidence of new renaissance values Compare and discuss your evidenceCompare and discuss your evidence

25 IV. Upper class women get more education, but have less power overall than in High Middle Ages A.Women are revered by Dante (Beatrice), Petrarch (Laura), and other artists B.Ideals of feminine beauty C.They have less economic and political power. –Exceptions existed however.. Isabella d’Este of Mantua, ItalyIsabella d’Este of Mantua, Italy Caterina Sforza of Milan, ItalyCaterina Sforza of Milan, Italy In Spain, Queen Isabella of CastileIn Spain, Queen Isabella of Castile

26 V. Florence leads in the arts Filippo Brunelleschi (1337–1446) is widely considered the first Renaissance architect.Filippo Brunelleschi (1337–1446) is widely considered the first Renaissance architect. –Santa Maria del Fiore, called the Duomo Lorenzo Ghiberti made doors of bronzeLorenzo Ghiberti made doors of bronze

27 “Gates of Paradise” 17 ft tall!!17 ft tall!! –(Requested 1401 by wood manufacturer’s guild – first pair – first pair –second pair ) –Lost wax casting Can you tell what the pictures depict?Can you tell what the pictures depict?

28 The “Gates” on the Baptistry “Battistero di San Giovanni”“Battistero di San Giovanni” Built Built

29

30 Close-up of the “Gates of Paradise”

31 Masaccio father of perspective

32 Massaccio perfects Perspective 1420s1420s On foundation of Giotto’s work on creating roundness and depth…On foundation of Giotto’s work on creating roundness and depth… Discovers vanishing point…Discovers vanishing point… –Parallel lines come together in the distance

33 1426

34 New technique: foreshortening Paolo UcelloPaolo Ucello

35 Leonardo…self portrait

36 Leonardo da Vinci Inventor: –Making metal screws Experimenter/scientist –Hydraulics, bicycle, flippers Designer: –Planes, submarines Drawer and Painter –Mona Lisa –The Last Supper

37 a man of many talents…Leonardo’s notebooks…

38 Da Vinci: Mona Lisa (1503-5)38

39 Da Vinci: The Last Supper (1490) One of these men is Judas…

40 A Modern Reproduction…

41 Who was Niccolo Machiavelli?

42 Machiavelli’s POLITICS Outraged by Lorenzo Medici’s successorOutraged by Lorenzo Medici’s successor Spanish and French attack Italian city- statesSpanish and French attack Italian city- states –For Pope Julius’ aggression The Prince (1513)The Prince (1513) –The LION and the FOX

43 “…for the lion cannot protect himself from the traps, and the fox cannot defend himself from wolves. One must therefore be a fox to recognize traps, and a lion to fight wolves.”

44 Aggressive Pope Julius II Remakes Rome Aggressive foreign policy Builds up Rome Courted, bullied artists into coming to Rome Michelangelo and Raphael 1508 Michelangelo begins the Sistine Chapel; Finishes 1512 Raphael paints the Library Portrait by Raphael

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46 Done earlier for the Pope, by Michelangelo: Pieta ( ) Video: Carving the Pieta

47 Michelangelo: The Sistine Chapel ( c )

48 The Creation of Man Trailer: The Agony and EcstasyLink to Sistine Chapel

49 Michelangelo: The Last Judgment ( c ) Sistine Chapel Controversy

50 A Close up…

51 Dome for St. Peter’s Basilica As designed by Michelangelo, the drum was completed by his death in 1564, but the dome on top was slightly redesigned by Giacomo della Porta afterwards.

52 Botticelli: The Birth of Venus (about 1480)

53 Botticelli: Primavera (c.1478)

54 Bellini: St. Francis in Ecstasy (c. 1485)

55 Titian –Madonna with Child and Members of Pesaro Family (1526) Compare and Contrast this with another painting ….

56

57 German Artist Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman Artist Hans Holbein the Younger “The Virgin and Child with the Family of Burgomaster Meyer” (1528) Burghers with money

58 Renaissance Spreads North Netherlands (Dutch), “Germany” (still many smaller states), & Belgium (Flanders)Netherlands (Dutch), “Germany” (still many smaller states), & Belgium (Flanders) More writing and printing: philosophy and religious ideasMore writing and printing: philosophy and religious ideas Gutenberg’s printingGutenberg’s printing –first use of moveable type : 1440 –Bible printed 1452 ArtArt –Fewer Greek/Roman references –More depictions of everyday events –More photographic-like –Less flesh and muscle, more clothing!

59 Van Eyck: “Giovanni and His Bride” (1434) Netherlands

60 Van Eyck: The Last Judgment (c )

61 Limbourg brothers (Paul, Hermann and Jean)Limbourg brothers (Paul, Hermann and Jean) –Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Medieval Book of Hours)(The Medieval Book of Hours) –Dutch

62 Albrecht Durer: German Artist Self portrait

63 Durer’s portrait of his Father Durer’s portrait of his Father

64 Wood cuts and block printing By Albrecht Durer

65 Renaissance Explorers Stories of Marco Polo (1295) of Eastern TradeStories of Marco Polo (1295) of Eastern Trade Portuguese…Busting a monopoly!Portuguese…Busting a monopoly! –Prince Henry –Caravels, compasses and astrolabes –Vasco De Gama to India

66 The astrolabe Invented by GreeksInvented by Greeks Perfected by Islamic scholars, 12th c.Perfected by Islamic scholars, 12th c.

67 Ferdinand and Isabella and CC Final end of long Reconquista War in Spain allowed F and I to give Columbus moneyFinal end of long Reconquista War in Spain allowed F and I to give Columbus money Setting sail August 3, Oct 12Setting sail August 3, Oct 12

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69 Exploring For Spain –Columbus 1492 – Go West to bypass others! –Assumed world circumference was much smaller Promised 10% of finds, and AdmiraltyPromised 10% of finds, and Admiralty F and I didn’t expect him to returnF and I didn’t expect him to return –Later:Balboa – the Pacific Ocean! –Magellan around the world ships, 230 men; 18 on 1 ship return5 ships, 230 men; 18 on 1 ship return Line of Demarcation TreatyLine of Demarcation Treaty


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