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Overview of Paleozoic History and Resulting Aquifers.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of Paleozoic History and Resulting Aquifers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Paleozoic History and Resulting Aquifers

2 Regions of the shield in North America

3 Appalachian basin Wisconsin arch Ozark plateau Transcontinental arch Structural features of the eastern midcontinent Persistent through the Paleozoic Finlay arch Cincinnati arch Lexington dome Nashville dome Illinois basin Michigan basin Mississippi embayment


5 Upper Cambrian Facies and Geography Sauk Transgression

6 Prairie de Chien Dolomite St Peter Sandstone Potsdam SS Theresa SS St Francois SS LS LS in Apps Cambrian


8 End of Sauk Transgression Taconic Orogeny Ordovician. Start of Appalachian orogeny (Taconic, Acadian, Alleghenian) in the east. Taconic orogeny: Clastic wedges in New York, TN/KY. Carbonate platform on craton. Piedmont intrusions, metamorphism and thrusting. Carbonate platform on craton. End of Sauk transgression. Carbonates forming main Ozark Plateau Aquifer Carbonates at the center of Nashville and Lexington domes Prairie de Chien dolomite, Wisconsin, Minnesota Carbonates in Arbuckle Mountains Martinsburg Sandstone in Appalachians

9 Ordovician Carbonates Ozark Plateau Carbonate in Arbuckle Mountains Carbonates Nashville Lexington domes Martinsburg SS in Appalachians


11 Tippecanoe Transgression Silurian. Reefs form in northern Ohio, western NY and Michigan. Limestone and evaporites in closed basins formed by reefs. Tippecanoe Transgression Niagra Dolomite: Western NY Carbonates in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio Carbonates deposited on continental shelf in western U.S.

12 Mid-Continent Carbonates Niagra Dolomite and other carbonates Silurian


14 Acadian Orogeny Antler Orogeny Devonian. Acadian orogeny in the east. Clastic wedge in PA, fine-grained sediments form Devonian shale. Few carbonates because of clastic influx. Antler orogeny in the west, Island-arc system, Roberts thrust in Nevada. Sandstones in folded Appalachians Shales form confining units over carbonate aquifers

15 Devonian aquifer systems Devonian shale forms confining units in Midwest. Confining mostly carbonate aquifers. Some sandstones in folded Appalachians


17 Kaskaskia Transgression Mississippian. Last major episode of carbonate deposition in cratonic sea. Kaskaskia Transgression Carbonates on Springfield Plateau (northern Missouri to central Iowa) Carbonates from northern Alabama to central Indiana and Ohio. Madison Limestone in Montana Marshall Sandstone in Michigan basin

18 Carbonates Springfield plateau Mississippian Mid-Continent Carbonates Sandstone Madison limestone


20 Pennsylvanian Coalfields in North America

21 Absaroka Transgression Pennsylvanian. Deltas prograde from NE to SW in NE midcontinent. Deposition of cyclothems (coal). Absaroka Transgression. Clastic wedge Sandstones in Appalachian Plateau Sandstone in Michigan Basin LS and SS in Illinois basin (associated with cyclothems) Sandstone: Ada-Vamosa aquifer in Oklahoma

22 Pennsylvanian Sandstone Michigan basin Illinois basin Appalachian basin Ada-Vamosa aquifer


24 Alleghenian orogeny Sonoma orogeny Absaroka Transgression Permian Alleghenian orogeny in east. Major thrusting (Ouachita to S. Appalachian) and folding with thrusts (Central and Northern Appalachians). Small basins in midwest and southwest. Sonoma orogeny in west. Island-arc system, volcanics and thrusting; Golconda thrust in Nevada. Absaroka transgression continues. Rush Springs Aquifer, Oklahoma SS Central Oklahoma aquifer SS Blaine aquifer, Oklahoma and Texas Carbonate in Roswell Basin, New Mexico Carbonate: Coconino de Chelly aquifer across Colorado Plateau

25 SS Rush Springs, OK SS in Central OK aq SS in Blaine aquifer LS Coconino de Chelly across CP LS in Roswell Basin Permian

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