Presentation on theme: "Roman Achievements. Greco-Roman Civilization Romans borrowed ideas from the Greeks. Romans believed that Greek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific."— Presentation transcript:
Greco-Roman Civilization Romans borrowed ideas from the Greeks. Romans believed that Greek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific genius were above others. Blending of Greek, Hellenistic (Greek, Persian, Egyptian, Indian), and Roman culture = Greco-Roman Civilization
Latin Language Latin was the spoken and written language of Rome. Many forms of literature—poetry, histories, fictional stories, and dramas—were written in Latin. Latin could be understood throughout the Empire, and it became the language of the Roman Catholic church. Latin greatly influenced the vocabulary of many languages. The English word “justice,” for instance, comes from the Latin word “jus” meaning law. This same Latin root is also found in the French word “justice,” the Italian word “giustizia,” and the Spanish word, “justicia.”
Roman Religion Romans were initially polytheistic and required that conquered people show respect for their gods. During the Pax Romana, Christianity began and spread along the roads and trade routes throughout the Roman Empire. Early Christians were persecuted for their beliefs – some became martyrs who sacrificed themselves for their beliefs.
Spread of Christianity In early Roman times, Christianity, a new religion, was one of many religions. o Christians were persecuted (legally punished) because they refused to worship the Roman gods and emperor. o Many Christians were tortured and executed and became martyrs (people who suffer or die for their beliefs). o Some were used as human torches, while others, as pictured above, were sent to the Circus Maximus arena to battle and be devoured by lions. o The attempts by Roman authorities to eliminate Christianity backfired. o People in the Roman Empire were so impressed by the faith of the martyrs that they converted to Christianity in large numbers. o By A.D. 395, Christianity was declared the official religion of the Roman Empire and rapidly spread across the Roman world.
Roman Sculpture Created realistic portraits in stone. Bas-relief : images project from a flat background o Used to tell stories o Represent people, soldiers, landscape
Roman Mosaics Mosaics were pictures or designs made by setting small pieces of stone, glass, or tile onto surface.
Roman Frescoes Most wealthy Romans had large, bright murals, called frescoes, painted directly on their walls. Roman villa – home of wealthy Romans
Roman Engineering Romans excelled in the practical arts of building and perfecting their engineering skills
Roman Architecture Romans emphasized grandeur to show power and dignity.
Development of the Dome Romans learned how to use columns and arches from both the Etruscans ad the Greeks, two groups that settled in Italy before Roman civilization developed. The Romans improved on design of arches by inventing the dome, a roof formed by rounded arches. Once Romans learned to use concrete, they were able to mold the domes on the ground. After the walls and columns of a building were constructed, the dome was hoisted into position on the top of a building. This achievement allowed architects to build enormous structures using domes. Today domed buildings, like the Arizona State Capitol and Montana Capitol building shown here, appear in many parts of the world.
Development of Aqueducts The need for a water supply in cities led Romans to build aqueducts. Aqueducts, canal-like concrete structures, brought water from springs, wells, and distant lakes to people in cities. In order to supply drinking water to the Roman people, aqueducts tunneled through mountains and crossed valleys. Here we see an illustration of interconnected systems of aqueducts in ancient Rome. People became aware of the need for cleanliness – took back to their own lands.
Roman Aqueducts Bridgelike structures carried water from mountains into cities.
Roman Roads Constructed throughout the Roman Empire, over 52,000 miles Were effective in helping to move the army from place to place, and trade within the empire. Example of how people adapt to their environment.
Via Appia All roads lead to Rome! All roads lead to Rome!
Roman Law Most lasting and widespread contribution Laws were fair and applied equally to all people. o All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law. o Innocent until proven guilty o The burden of proof lies with the accuser, not the accused. o A person should be punished for actions, not for thoughts. o Guilt must be established “clearer than daylight” through evidence. These laws became the basis for legal systems in Europe and Latin America
Republican Form of Government Rome’s form of government influenced other societies. In 509 B.C., Rome set up a republic-a government in which citizens vote to choose their leaders. By about 275 B.C., no single class of people dominated the government. Rather, the government was partly a monarchy (ruled by a king), partly an aristocracy (ruled by nobles, as was the Roman senate), and partly a democracy (government by the people). In the picture above, we see a Roman leader speaking in the Senate. The Constitution of the United States is based on the Roman Republic’s system of balancing the legislative, judicial, and executive powers of government.
Literature and History The Roman Empire was unified through language. Latin was adopted by many different people and became the basis for other languages, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and English. Poetry – Virgil wrote the Aeneid History – Livy – wrote The History of Rome from its foundation
Roman Science A. Simplification of Greek knowledge B. Pliny the Elder (23 – 79) Natural History Natural History Facts, no theory Facts, no theory No skepticism about claims No skepticism about claims “… the place which is known by the name of Geskleithron, the Arimaspi are said to exist... a nation remarkable for having but one eye, and that placed in the middle of the forehead. This race is said to carry on a perpetual warfare with the Griffins, a kind of monster, with wings, as they are commonly represented, for the gold which they dig out of the mines, and which these wild beasts retain and keep watch over with a singular degree of cupidity, while the Arimaspi are equally desirous to get possession of it.”
Roman Medicine Had a love-hate relationship with all things Greek The Romans saw the Greeks as being dreamers whilst they were do-ers But they accepted that the Greeks had the best doctors in the world and transported many of them to Rome
Claudius Galen Born in Turkey – studied at Alexandria Most influential figure in medicine for the next 1000 years o Wrote many books that were used all throughout the Middle Ages Revived the ideas of Hippocrates –Developed an interest in anatomy – but got lots of details wrong as he only officially dissected pigs
Roman public health First to realise the connection between dirty water and poor health Had Aqueducts and sewers Realised that you had to build towns and settlements away from swamps and near rivers Army had clean hospitals with good ventilation
Roman public health Most Roman towns had public baths These served both public health and social purposes They also had public lavatories These public health ideas benefited the people who lived in the empire as well as Rome