Presentation on theme: "Jerusalem-The Holy Land Presented By- Nick Antonelli, Connor Laughlin, Joe Nally, and Ben Thompson for Section 2 of Religions of the Book."— Presentation transcript:
Jerusalem-The Holy Land Presented By- Nick Antonelli, Connor Laughlin, Joe Nally, and Ben Thompson for Section 2 of Religions of the Book.
Contents History of Jerusalem Significance of the Holy Land in: –The Hebrew Bible –The New Testament –The Qur’an
Terms to know Holy Land- refers to the land of Israel/ the Promised Land. Jerusalem- A city in the Holy Land. Holiest city to Jews and Christians, highly regarded for Muslims Temple Mount- Holy site in Jerusalem. Site of Abrahams sacrifice, 1 st and 2 nd Temples, future site of 3 rd Temple, Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Pre Jewish Jerusalem Settlements in Jerusalem date as far back as the 4th millennium BCE Earliest written records are as far back as the 19th century BCE Was inhabited by a Canaanite tribe called the Jebusites until the 11th century BCE
First Temple Jerusalem King David conquered the city in the 10th century and gave the city its name of Jerusalem or Yerushalayim David’s reign ended around 970 BCE Solomon took over at this point and built the first temple The sight of this first temple is a sacred place for Muslims, Jews and Christians as the last known resting place of the Ark of the Covenant Soon after Solomon died the kingdom split into two parts Jerusalem remained the capitol of the Kingdom of Judea 586 BCE the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judea and destroyed its temple
Second Temple Jerusalem 538 BCE the Jews were allowed to return to Judea In 19 BCE the Temple Mount was elevated and work began on an expansion of the second temple under Herod the Great The Temple Mount is one of the most contested spots in the world In 6 CE the city came under the direct control of the Romans Roman rule was challenged with the Great Jewish Revolt –led to the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE
Jerusalem in the Hebrew Bible Spiritual center for Jewish world. Located in land God promised to Abraham (Canaan). Site of Abrahams sacrifice of Isaac, as well as sight of 1 st and 2 nd Temples (where Dome of the Rock is).
The Holy Land and Abraham *Gen 12:1-9, *15: God’s Covenant with Abraham (about 1800 BCE). *Gen 22:1-3- The sacrifice of Isaac (in land of Moriah, also thought to be site of Dome of the Rock).
Conquest of Jerusalem 1030 BCE- Saul becomes 1 st ruler of a united Kingdom of Israel. *2 Sam 5:6-12-David becomes king after Saul’s death. In 1000 BCE he takes over Jebusite city of Jerusalem and claims it as the capitol
Solomon’s Temple and the Babylonian Exile *2 Sam 7:1-17- God tells David that his heir will build a house in His name, the 1 st Temple (actually built 970 BCE). *2 Kings 25:1-12- King Nebuchadnezzar, of Babylon, destroys city of Jerusalem along with 1 st Temple in 587.
Rebuilding Jerusalem Zec 1: God forgives the people of Jerusalem and chooses them (again) to be his people and Jerusalem to be his city. *Neh 2: Nehemiah begins rebuilding Jerusalem so it will “no longer be an object of derision” between 520 and 515 BCE.
Jerusalem in the New Testament- Luke 21 Destruction of the temple is foretold -Nation will rise against nation -Kingdom against Kingdom -Earthquakes -Famines -Plagues The kingdom of God will come Luke 21: Story of the fig tree
Luke 24:33-35 Resurrection of Jesus Appearance to the two travelers Meeting with the disciples in Jerusalem Appearance to the group
John 2:13-25 Found people who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, as well as money-changers Made a whip to drive them out Keeping clean the holy place of God
John 11:55-57 Going to Jerusalem to purify themselves Expecting Jesus to come purify them
Jerusalem and the Islamic Faith Islam precedes all religions, according to tradition, and shares roots in Judaism and Christianity, with all three having strong religious ties to the city of Jerusalem. Jerusalem is said to be the third holiest city in the Islamic faith, behind the cities of Makkah and Madinah, respectively.
Al-Aqsa Mosque & The Dome of the Rock Jerusalem is home to two major Islamic holy sites: Al-Aqsa Mosque, or the Temple Mount, and the Dome of the Rock.
Al-Aqsa Mosque The Temple Mount (Masjid al-Aqsa) –Known as “The Farthest Mosque”, it is located in East Jerusalem. –Has progressively expanded over time, but is still constructed over the original mosque that Muhammad worshipped.
Al-Aqsa Mosque The Mi’raj –During Muhammad’s Mi’raj, he was first taken to the Al- Aqsa Mosque by the angel Gabriel. Qur’an, Surah 17:1 –Some scripture in the Qu’ran has been interpreted to mean that the journey was only a divine dream. Qu’ran, Surah 17:60
Al-Aqsa Mosque The First Qibla –Before Muslims began facing Makkah, they first directed their prayer at the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Qu’ran, Surah 2:
Dome of the Rock A holy site built around the rock where it is believed that Muhammad was taken into heaven by the angel Gabriel during his Mi’raj. –Muslims believe that Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Ishmael, not Isaac, in what is now the stretch of desert in Saudi Arabia, called Mina.
Roman/Byzantine Jerusalem Second Jewish Revolt –led by Bar Kokhba Romans sacked the city and destroyed the temple Massive Roman reconstruction of Jerusalem in 135 CE under Emperor Hadrian Under Constantine I Jerusalem became a center for Christianity Built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the sight of Calvary (previously a temple to Venus there)
Muslim Control Caliph Umar ibn al- Khattāb conquered Jerusalem in 638 CE Allowed Jews and Christians to live there in return for a tax Caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned and completed the Dome of the Rock by the end of the 7th century
The Crusades In 1099 Jerusalem was taken by the First Crusade The Crusaders slaughtered most of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants Saladin conquered Jerusalem in 1187 Was much more peaceful in his conquest, killed no civilians after the battle Various powers controlled the city in the next few centuries
British/Israeli Control The British Army captured the city after the Battle of Jerusalem in the League of Nations entrusted the British Empire to help establish a State of Israel 1947 the UN partition plan recommended that certain sites remain internationally governed –Big controversy to this day about this –Never went into effect and so the State of Israel and Jordan took half of the city each In 1967 Israel captured the other half of the city in the Six-Day War