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Instructor Dustin M Price

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1 Instructor Dustin M Price
Art History II Instructor Dustin M Price

2 Did Jan van Eyck invent oil painting?
Quiz 1 Take out a piece of paper and write your name for 1pt and then answer the following question for 1pt: True or False Did Jan van Eyck invent oil painting?

3 What did we cover last time?
Intuitive and atmospheric perspective Oil Paint vs. Tempera Jan van Eyck Double Portrait of A Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife Iconography/Symbolism Diptych/Triptych Rogeir van der Weyden Europe Beyond Flanders (France) French artist Jean Fouquet

4 This lengthy process also made books very expensive.
I want to quickly backtrack to one of the most important moments in humanity, the invention of the printing press. - Somewhere around 1440 Johannes Gutenberg changed the world by inventing the Printing Press. Previously, bookmaking entailed copying all the words and illustrations by hand. A tedious process, mostly reserved for clergy. This lengthy process also made books very expensive. Gutenberg's press could produce books quickly and with relatively little effort, bookmaking became much less expensive, allowing more people to buy reading material. This lead to the spread of philosophy, education, and literacy throughout Europe. There was an incredible explosion of intellectual pursuits. In the Middle Ages, books had been costly and education rare; only the clergy had been regular readers and owners of books. Most books had been written in Latin, considered the language of scholarship. In the Renaissance, the educated middle classes, who could now afford books, demanded works in their own languages. As the demand for books grew, the book trade began to flourish throughout Europe, and industries related to it, such as papermaking, thrived as well. The result of all of this was a more literate populace and a stronger economy. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg

5 A 15th century printing press similar to the one Gutenberg invented.
Martin Schongauer Demons Tormenting St. Anthony Engraving

6 Lets us define Humanism one more time:
This spreading of intellectual ideals aided the Humanists of the time not only educate themselves but further their own philosophy. Lets us define Humanism one more time: Humanism is a philosophy that believes in the power and potential of human beings Humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders beginning in the 14th century. (by the mid-fifteenth century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations.) Cheap books also helped to spread awareness of Humanism. The humanists returned to the works of ancient writers. Previously, during the Middle Ages, scholars had been guided by the teachings of the church, and people had concerned themselves with actions leading to heavenly rewards. The writings of ancient, pagan Greece and Rome, called the "classics," had been greatly ignored. To study the classics, humanists learned to read Greek and ancient Latin, and they sought out manuscripts that had lain undisturbed for nearly 2,000 years. The humanists rediscovered writings on scientific matters, government, rhetoric, philosophy, and art. They were influenced by the knowledge of these ancient civilizations and by the emphasis placed on man, his intellect, and his life on Earth. Page from a Gutenberg Bible printed around 1445 (about 40 still exist today)

7 During the Renaissance the most important Italian centers of culture lay north of Rome in a region referred to as Tuscany. The cities of Milan, Venice, and Florence held much of the power, money, and therefore were centers of art patronage. Powerful families rose to power such as the Medici in Florence, and the Sforza in Milan. Florence in 1400 was extremely unusual. With no king, prince or duke, the city was an independent republic, run by the people, for the people It was not a perfect democracy but it worked and was responsible for creating a group of strong families, dynasties who would end up fighting for control of this thriving city. The strongest of which was the Medici Family.

8 The Medici family rose in power during the 15th century in Florence.
They were among the new “Upper Middle Class” of merchants and bankers in Italy during the Renaissance. They were brilliant bankers and utterly ruthless. People who went against them often were humiliated, or found dead. Although Florence was a republic at the time The Medici’s were certainly the de facto rulers. Corruption ran rampant in the Medici household but they were famous for their patronage of the arts, philosophy, and architecture. The biggest accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was significant because during this period, artists generally only made their works when they received commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi in Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most significant addition to the list over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be extremely fond of the young Michelangelo, inviting him to study the family collection of antique sculpture.[46] Lorenzo also served as patron to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed Lorenzo was an artist in his own right, and author of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage. Medici Chapel

9 Interior of Medici Chapel (Princes Chapel)

10 The Florence Cathedral (The Duomo)
A distinctive feature of Florence's skyline is the dome of the cathedral (Duomo), Santa Maria del Fiore. Construction began in the late 13th century and continued off and on throughout the 14th century As early as 1367 builders envisioned a great dome but did not have the skill to complete it. Around 1407 interest in finally completing the cathedral prompted Filippo Brunelleschi (a sculptor turned architect) to propose a technical solution for completing the dome. Brunelleschi was the son of a man originally involved in the plans for the dome. Brunelleschi was originally trained as a goldsmith. Some believe the baptistery was built on the site of an ancient roman temple. The tower was built by the artist Giotto The cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore

11 The octagonal Baptistery stands in both the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza di San Giovanni, across from the Duomo cathedral and the Giotto bell tower (Campanile di Giotto). It is one of the oldest buildings in the city, built between 1059 and The architecture is in Florentine Romanesque style. The Baptistery is renowned for its three sets of artistically important bronze doors with relief sculptures. The south doors were done by Andrea Pisano and the north and east doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti.The east pair of doors was dubbed by Michelangelo "the Gates of Paradise". The Florence Baptistery or Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John)

12 The Florence Baptistery or Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John) south door by Andrea Pisano

13 The Florence Baptistery or Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John) north door by Lorenzo Ghiberti

14 Ghiberti won the opportunity to make these doors in a contest he and Brunelleschi both of whom were in their early 20’s at the time were finalists. The Florence Baptistery or Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John) east door by Lorenzo Ghiberti

15 Interior of the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore

16 Interior of the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore looking up towards the dome (notice the oculus)

17 The Florence Cathedral (The Duomo)
To further his education Brunelleschi traveled to Rome to study sculpture and architecture. Upon his return to Florence he began work on the dome, beginning with the octagonal drum or base which was completed in 1412. The dome itself was designed in 1417, and was built between 1420 and 1436. It was completely revolutionary. After the dome project solidified Brunelleschi’s expertise commissions came rolling in. From around 1418 until his death in 1446, Brunelleschi was involved in many famous projects. The dome is a double shell of masonry 138 ft across. Instead of using expensive and often dangerous scaffolding and centering, Brunelleschi devised a system in which wood supports were used. As the building was raised so were the wood supports. Portion by portion the dome was built each section reinforcing the previous one. When finished this self-buttressed unit required no external support to keep it standing. The “Lantern” over the oculus (round opening) was added after Brunelleschi’s death. The dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore

18 Interior of the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore looking down the oculus

19 Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (1386-1466)
- Florentine Sculptor Is thought to learn stone carving from one of the stone carvers working on the Florence Cathedral in about 1400 Some time between 1404 and 1407 he became a member of the workshop of Lorenzo Ghiberti, a sculptor in bronze who in 1402 had won the competition for the doors of the Florentine baptistery. Donatello's earliest work of which there is certain knowledge, a marble statue of David, (next slide) shows an artistic debt to Ghiberti, who was then the leading Florentine exponent of International Gothic, a style of graceful, softly curved lines strongly influenced by northern European art. Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi), master of sculpture in both marble and bronze, was one of the greatest of all Italian Renaissance artists. A good deal is known about Donatello's life and career, but little is known about his character and personality, and what is known is not wholly reliable. He never married and he seems to have been a man of simple tastes. Patrons often found him hard to deal with in a day when artists' working conditions were regulated by guild rules. Donatello seemingly demanded a measure of artistic freedom. Although he knew a number of Humanists well, the artist was not a cultured intellectual. His Humanist friends attest that he was a connoisseur of ancient art. The inscriptions and signatures on his works are among the earliest examples of the revival of classical Roman lettering. He had a more detailed and wide-ranging knowledge of ancient sculpture than any other artist of his day. His work was inspired by ancient visual examples, which he often daringly transformed. Though he was traditionally viewed as essentially a realist, later research indicates he was much more.

20 Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi)
( ) The David, originally intended for the cathedral, was moved in 1416 to the Palazzo Vecchio, the city hall, where it long stood as a civic-patriotic symbol, although from the 16th century on it was eclipsed by the gigantic David of Michelangelo, which served the same purpose. The last years of Donatello's life were spent designing twin bronze pulpits for San Lorenzo, and, thus, again in the service of his old patrons the Medici, he died. Covered with reliefs showing the passion of Christ, the pulpits are works of tremendous spiritual depth and complexity, even though some parts were left unfinished and had to be completed by lesser artists.

21 cast in bronze, height around 5’
Donatello’s David ( ?) - Unlike any other interpretation of the story of David killing Goliath, a rather popular theme in Renaissance Italy cast in bronze, height around 5’ considered one of Donatello’s finest works David, was at the time in Florence a potent political symbol of the citizens’ resolve to oppose tyrants regardless of their superior power. An inscription of the base where the sculpture once stood suggests it may have also celebrated the Florentine triumph over Milanese in 1425. What makes this interpretation so intriguing? Lets take a closer look at the statue and then compare it to other David statues from the same time and area. Probably the most famous example of fifteenth-century sculpture is the bronze David by Donatello. Dates for the work vary from the 1430s to the 1460s. It is recorded as the centerpiece of the first courtyard in the Palazzo Medici during the wedding festivities of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini in Some have argued that it was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici in the 1430s to be the centerpiece of the courtyard of the older Medici house on the Via Larga. This is the first example of a life size male nude since antiquity. The statue is certainly influenced by the classical tradition of nudity, but the stark realism, subtle contraposto, and highly effeminate features lead some scholars to believe there are underlying themes of homoeroticism especially when considering the placement of the feather from Goliath’s Helmut on the inner thigh of the adolescent David.




25 Bartolomeo Bellano, David, c. 1470-80.

26 Master of the David and Saint John Statuettes, David, c. 1490.

27 Andrea del Verrocchio, David, c. 1465.

28 Things to Remember for Exam 1:
Vocab: Oculus Humanism Contrapposto The Gutenberg Printing Press Artwork/Architecture The cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore 19-2 Martin Schongauer Demons Tormenting St. Anthony Engraving18-26 the bronze David by Donatello 19-10

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