Presentation on theme: "W7: September 29- October 3, 2014 Week 7. Monday, September 29 Warm Up – 2 pages WS “Food for Thought” Powerpoint Notes for Section 2 Homework: ▫ Quiz."— Presentation transcript:
W7: September 29- October 3, 2014 Week 7
Monday, September 29 Warm Up – 2 pages WS “Food for Thought” Powerpoint Notes for Section 2 Homework: ▫ Quiz on Monday, October 6 th on: States and Capitals – matching
Earth’s five major climate zones are identified by temperature, precipitation, and plant life.
What factors do geographers use to determine our different climate zones? Temperature Precipitation Native Plants
There are 5 general climate zones. They are tropical, temperate, polar, dry, and highland. In addition, geographers divide some climate zones into more specific climate regions.
How does climate affect vegetation? How does climate affect agriculture?
Tropical Climate Humid Tropical & Tropical Savanna Humid Tropical On and near the equator Warm and high amounts of rain year round Monsoons create extreme wet seasons Tropical rain forest
Tropical Climate Tropical Savanna Higher latitudes in the tropics Warm all year; distinct raining and dry seasons; at least 20 inches of rain during summer Tall grasses, scattered trees
Dry Climate Desert & Steppe Desert Mainly center on 30* latitude; also in middle of continents, on west coasts, or in rain shadows Sunny and dry; less than 10 inches of rain a year; hot in the tropics; cooler with the wide daytime temperature ranges in middle latitudes A few hardy plants, cacti
Dry Climate Desert & Steppe Steppe Mainly bordering deserts and interiors of large continents About inches of precipitation a year; hot summers and cooler winters with wide temperature ranges during the day Shorter grasses, some trees and shrubs by water
Temperate Climate Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid Continental Mediterranean West coasts in middle latitudes Dry, sunny, warm summer; mild, wetter winters; rain averages Scrub woodland and grassland
Temperate Climate Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid Continental Humid Subtropical East coasts in middle latitudes Humid with hot summers and mild winters; rain year- round, in paths of hurricanes and typhoons Mixed forest
Temperate Climate Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid Continental Marine West Coast West coasts in the upper-middle latitudes A cloudy, mild summers and cool, rainy winters; strong ocean influence Evergreen forests
Temperate Climate Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast, & Humid Continental Humid Continental East coasts and interiors of upper-middle latitudes Four distinct seasons; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; average precipitation ILLINOIS Mixed forests
Polar Climate Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice Cap Subarctic Higher latitudes of the interior and east coasts of continents Extremes of temperature; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; little precipitation Northern evergreen forests
Polar Climate Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice Cap Tundra Coasts in high latitudes Cold all year; very long, cold winters and very short, cool summers; little precipitation; permafrost Moss, lichens, low shrubs
Polar Climate Subarctic, Tundra, & Ice Cap Ice Cap Higher latitudes of the interior and east coasts of continents Extremes of temperature; long, cold winters and short, warm summers; little precipitation No vegetation
Highland Climate High mountain regions Wide range of temperatures and precipitation amounts, depending on elevation and location Ranges from forest to tundra
Tuesday, September 30 Turn in homework – “Food for Thought” WS Warm Up: ▫ Complete the worksheet Mr. Epperley and Ms. Whited Climate, Environment and Resources ▫ Read Section 3 ▫ Complete the vocabulary for the section Homework: ▫ Quiz on Monday, October 6 th on: States and Capitals – matching
Wednesday, OCTOBER 1 Turn in homework Warm Up: ▫ Complete the worksheet Climate, Environment and Resources ▫ Complete Notes on Section 3 (pg 7-8) ▫ Read Section 4 Homework: ▫ Quiz on Monday, October 6 th on: States and Capitals – matching
Plants, animals, and the environment, including soil, interact and affect one another.
ecosystem A group of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival and the environment in which they live habitat The place where a plant or animal lives desertification The spread of desertlike conditions
The Environment and Life Limits on Life: The environment limits life. Factors such as temperature, rainfall, and soil conditions limit where plants and animals can live. All plants and animals are adapted to specific environments.
Connections in Nature: The interconnections between living things and the environment form ecosystems. They can be any size and can occur wherever air, water, and soil support life. Each part of an ecosystem fills a certain role
Sunlight is the source of energy for most living things Plants use the energy in sunlight to make food. They serve as the basis for other life in the ecosystem Animals such as rabbits eat plants and gain some of their energy. Predators, such as hawks and wolves, eat rabbits and other prey for energy Larger predators, such as mountain lions, compete for the prey that is available.
Changes to Environments: The interconnect parts of an ecosystem exist in a fragile balance. A small change to one part can affect the whole system. Many actions can affect ecosystems. Actions such as clearing land and polluting can destroy habitats. Our most diverse habitats on Earth are tropical rain forests. Extreme changes in ecosystems can cause species to become extinct.
Soil and the Environment Plants are the basis for all food that animals eat. Soils help determine what plants will grow and how well. Soils play an important role in the environment because they support plant life. Fertile soils are rich in minerals and humus.
These soils support abundant plant life. Soils can lose fertility in several ways. Erosion through wind or water can sweep soil away. Planting the same crops over and over can also rob soil of its fertility. When soil becomes worn out, it cannot support as many plants. This can lead to desertification in fragile dry environments.
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 2 Turn in homework Warm Up: ▫ Complete the worksheet Climate, Environment and Resources ▫ Complete notes for Section 4 (pgs. 8-10) Homework: ▫ Quiz on Monday, October 6 th on: States and Capitals – matching
Earth’s natural resources have many valuable uses and their availability affects people in many ways.
Vocabulary from Section 4 Renewable resources Resources Earth replaces naturally Non-renewable resources Resources that cannot be replaced Fossil fuels Non-renewable resources that formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals Hydroelectric power The production of electricity from waterpower Natural resource Any material in nature that people use and value
Earth’s Valuable Resources Using Natural Resources: Trees, oil, and metals are all examples of natural resources. Earth’s most important natural resources include air, water, soils, forests, and minerals. We use some resources as they are, like wind. Usually we change natural resources to make something new.
Types of Natural Resources: We group our natural resources into two groups: those we can replace naturally, called renewable resources and those we will run out of one day, or non-renewable resources. Once we use those up, it is gone.
Managing Natural Resources: Although forests are renewable, we can cut down trees faster than they can grow, which causes deforestation. Reforestation is the planting of trees to replace lost forestland.
Energy Resources Energy resources power vehicles, produce heat, and generate electricity. They are some of our most important and valuable natural resources.
Nonrenewable Energy: Most of the energy we use comes from fossil fuels. The most important fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Coal has been a source of heat, however it pollutes the air and can harm the land. Today we use coal mainly to create electricity at power plants, not to heat single buildings. People are trying to find cleaner ways to burn coal
Petroleum, or oil, is a dark liquid used to make oil and other products. When first removed from the ground, petroleum is called crude oil.
Fuels made from oil include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Oil is also used to make plastics and cosmetics. Oil-based fuels can pollute the air and land. Oil spills can harm wildlife. But, because we are so dependent on oil for energy, it is an extremely valuable resource.
Natural gas is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel. We use it for heating and cooking. Some vehicles run on natural gas as well. These vehicles cause less pollution than those that run on gasoline.
Renewable Energy Resources: Unlike fossil fuels, renewable energy resources will not run out. The main alternative is hydroelectric power that can be obtained from moving water by damming rivers. These dams harness the power of moving water in order to generate electricity.
While hydroelectric can produce power without polluting and lessons our use of fossil fuels, the dams create lakes that replace existing resources and disrupt wildlife habitats.
Wind is another renewable energy. Windmills have been used in the past, but today we use powerful wind turbines. At wind farms, hundreds of turbines create electricity in windy places.
Solar power is a third source. We use the power of the sun to heat water or homes. We can also use solar panels to turn solar energy into electricity. We can also use geothermal energy, or heat from within Earth. Geothermal power plants use steam and hot water located with Earth to create electricity.
Nuclear Energy: We obtain this energy by splitting atoms. This process uses the metal uranium. While nuclear power does not pollute the air, it does produce dangerous wastes. These wastes must be stored for thousands of years before they are safe. Accidents at nuclear power plants are extremely dangerous for the people and environment nearby.
Mineral Resources Mineral resources are valuable. These resources include metals, salt, rocks, and gemstones. Minerals are nonrenewable. Recycling items such as aluminum cans will make the supply of these resources last longer.
Resources and People Resources and Daily Life: In the United States, we have many different kinds of natural resources. We can choose different ways to dress, eat, live, travel, and entertain ourselves. People in places with fewer natural resources will likely have fewer choices and different needs than Americans.
Resources and Wealth: The many natural resources in the United States have helped it become one of the world’s wealthiest countries. In contrast, countries with few natural resources often have weak economies.
Friday, OCTOBER 3 Turn in homework Warm Up: ▫ Complete the worksheet Zombie Study ▫ Geographer interviews Homework: ▫ Quiz on Monday, October 6 th on: States and Capitals – matching