2Section Objectives:Compare similarities and differences among the classes of echinoderms.Interpret the evidence biologists have for determining that echinoderms are close relatives of chordates.
3What is an echinoderm?Echinoderms move by means of hundreds of hydraulic, suction-cup-tipped appendages and have skin covered with tiny, jawlike pincers.Echinoderms are found in all the oceans of the world.
4Echinoderms have endoskeletons If you were to examine the skin of several different echinoderms, you would find that they all have a hard, spiny,or bumpy endoskeleton covered by a thin epidermis.
29Regenerationthe ability to regenerate body parts.
30PredatorCrown of thorns sea star destroys a huge amount of coral reef each year. Live on the polyps of the coral, one sea star can eat the polyps from about 6 sq meters.Also eat clams and other shell fish.( Ingests food by pulling its lower stomach into open shells.)
31Sea starsMost species of sea stars have five rays, but some have more. Some species may have more than 40 rays.
36Question 3 A. carnivore B. herbivore C. parasite D. scavenger Which of the following terms does NOT describe an echinoderm’s method of obtaining food?A. carnivoreB. herbivoreC. parasiteD. scavengerThe answer is C, parasite.
37Question 4What stimulates a sea star to move in a given direction?
38Sea stars move toward light and toward chemical signals emitted from potential prey animals.
40Tunicates or sea squirt. Have a leathery outer covering, most adults are sessile.
41Tunicates are sea squirts Tunicate larvae do not feed and are free swimming after hatching.They soon settle and attach themselves with a sucker to boats, rocks, and the ocean bottom.Many adult tunicates secrete a tunic, a tough sac made of cellulose, around their bodies.
42Tunicates are sea squirts Colonies of tunicates sometimes secrete just one big tunic that has a common opening to the outside.Only the gill slits in adult tunicates indicate their chordate relationship.Adult tunicates are small, tubular animals that range in size from microscopic to several centi-meters long.
43Tunicates are sea squirts If you remove a tunicate from its sea home, it might squirt out a jet of water-hence the name sea squirt.
44LanceletsCan swim, although spend most of their time buried in the sand.Retain its chordate features throughout its life.
455 Characteristics of Chordates Notochord- a long semi rigid rod like structure. Located between the digestive system and the dorsal hollow nerve cord. (In vertebrates replaced by a backbone.)
465 Characteristics of Chordates Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord- In folding of the ectoderm that later becomes your spinal cord and brain.
475 Characteristics of Chordates Pharyngeal Pouches – Pair of structures locate in the pharyngeal region behind the mouth. In aquatic chordates (fish) develop into gill slits.
485 Characteristics of Chordates Post anal tail – Appendage or extension of the backbone posterior to the anus. (At some point all chordates have a post anal tail, including humans.)
495 Characteristics of Chordates Muscle Blocks – Modified body segments that consists of stacked muscle layers that are anchored to the notochord. (locomotion or movement)