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Organisms Exchange Information. Flight or Flight Response Watch this... P8L3qTW9Q P8L3qTW9Q.

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Presentation on theme: "Organisms Exchange Information. Flight or Flight Response Watch this... P8L3qTW9Q P8L3qTW9Q."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organisms Exchange Information

2 Flight or Flight Response Watch this... P8L3qTW9Q P8L3qTW9Q

3 Predator Warnings Aposematic coloration – bright colors warn others of poison/toxin/deadly nature of organism

4 Protection of young Herds, flocks, and schools – shield their young and/or mob their predator Altruistic behavior: animals that risk their own life to protect their young – insuring their genes are passed on = evolutionary success

5 Plant – plant & Plant - predator interaction due to herbivory Studies have shown that plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air as a consequence of damage to tissues (possible destroying vacuoles where VOCs are stored) Hi VOCs concentrations attract herbivore predators = indirect defense Possibility that plants can communicate via VOCs (intra-plant and inter-plant)

6 Avoidance Responses Avoid behaviors that could have aversive responses Food aversions Learning to avoid electric fences

7 Territorial marking in mammals change the behavior of mammals of the same species Many male mammals spray urine throughout their territories (especially along their borders) to warn other animals of the same species to keep out; communicate via a chemical signal

8 Coloration in flowers can change the behavior of other organisms… Bees base their color vision on ultra violet, blue and green. It is also thought that bees prefer different shades of blues, whites, and purple flowers. Bees cannot see red. Flower petals have Ultra Violet patterns on them, not visible to humans in normal light, but visible to bees. The patterns are believed to guide the bees onto the flower. In general, it’s believed that swathes of color are also more helpful to foraging bees and butterflies, providing a stronger visual signal that suggests ‘plenty of food here

9 Bees perform dances that provide information about the location of food. The dances can occur inside dark hives – so communication depends on tactile, chemical and auditory cues OQpSs OQpSs

10 Sounds are commonly used to communicate over long distances, through water, and at night Songs of male birds provide for species recognition, a display to attract mates and a warning to other males of territorial boundaries E-W8A E-W8A

11 Packs communicate to… allows members to successfully corner and attack large prey insures successful care and feeding of young helps members to defend common territory Wolves make threatening gestures by staring and baring their teeth.

12 Herds, Flocks, and Schools provide several advantages: Concealment – most individuals in the flock are hidden from view Vigilance – individuals can trade off foraging and watching for predators Defense – a group of individuals can shield their young or mob their predator

13 Colony and swarming behavior Swarm behavior is a collective behavior exhibited by animals of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction (also called flocking, herding, schooling, blooms, etc…) It is an emergent behavior with small simple subunits working together to make something much larger and complex

14 Migration is the long- distance, seasonal movement of animals. It is usually in response to seasonal availability of food or degradation of environmental conditions

15 Courtship and mating behaviors Elaborate visual displays of dances, aggression, etc… Calls and Songs to attract mates Emit pheromones into the air to attract mates dCF848 dCF848

16 Foraging in Bees and other animals Searching for and exploiting food resources; can be done alone or in groups Search images help animals find favored or plentiful food The bee dance can indicate proximity of food source (distance and direction) – bees communicate to hive Olive Baboons – forage for food; young learn proper foraging techniques from elders

17 Avoidance behavior to electric fences, poisons and traps Associative learning occurs when an animal recognizes that two or more events are connected Cryptic coloration – blending in to avoid predation, catch prey, etc… m/amazing-animal- camouflage-photos/ m/amazing-animal- camouflage-photos/

18 Cooperative behavior tends to increase the fitness of the individual and the survival of the population Pack Behavior Herd, Flock and Schooling Behavior Predator Warning Colony and Swarming behavior in Insects Parental care for young

19 Predator Warning Example – Belding’s ground squirrels give alarm calls (whistles) that warn other squirrels that a predator is approaching. Altruistic Behavior – seemingly unselfish behavior that appears to reduce the fitness of the individual but ultimately increases the fitness of the group

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