Presentation on theme: "School Name: YASHWANTRAO JADHAV VIDYALAYA,UMBRAJ STD : 9 TH DIV : A Student Name : Ajay Lale. Project : Tiger’s In India Guidance : Miss. Chavan R.B."— Presentation transcript:
School Name: YASHWANTRAO JADHAV VIDYALAYA,UMBRAJ STD : 9 TH DIV : A Student Name : Ajay Lale. Project : Tiger’s In India Guidance : Miss. Chavan R.B.
Characteristics: A Bengal tiger in the Kanyakumari Wildlife SanctuaryKanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings. Male Bengal tigers have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) on average. The tail is typically 85 to 110 cm (33 to 43 in) long, and on average, tigers are 90 to 110 cm (35 to 43 in) in height at the shoulders.
The average weight of males is 221.2 kg (488 lb), while that of females is 139.7 kg (308 lb). A white Bengal tiger at the Cougar Mountain Zoological Park. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal, Bihar and especially from the former State of Rewa.white tigermutant AssamBengalBihar State of Rewa However, it is not to be mistaken as an occurrence of albinism. In fact, there is only one fully authenticated case of a true albino tiger, and none of black tigers, with the possible albinism exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846. Chittagong
Genetic ancestry: Bengal tigers are defined by three distinct mitochondrial nucleotide sites and 12 unique microsatellite alleles. mitochondrialnucleotide microsatellite The pattern of genetic variation in the Bengal tiger corresponds to the premise that they arrived in Indiagenetic variation approximately 12,000 years ago. This is consistent with the lack of tiger fossils from the Indian subcontinent prior to the late Pleistocene and the absence of tigers from Sri Lanka, which was separated from thePleistoceneSri Lanka subcontinent by rising sea levels in the early Holocene. Holocene
their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result camera trapGIS of these surveys, the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. The following six landscape complexes comprising several ecological landscapes were surveyed across India based on current tiger occupancy and potential for connectivity
India A Bengal tiger in Bannerghatta National Park, IndiaBannerghatta National Park In the past, Indian censuses of wild tigers relied on the individual identification of footprints known as pug marks — a method that has been criticized as deficient and inaccurate. Good tiger habitats in subtropical and temperate upland forests include the Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs) Manas- Namdapha. TCUs in tropical dry forest includeManas Namdapha Hazaribagh National Park, Nagarjunsagar- Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kanha-Indravati corridor,Hazaribagh National ParkNagarjunsagar- Srisailam Tiger ReserveKanhaIndravati Orissa dry forests, Panna National Park, Melghat Tiger Reserve and Ratapani Tiger Reserve.OrissaPanna National ParkMelghat Tiger ReserveRatapani Tiger Reserve
The TCUs in tropical moist evergreen forests represent the less common tiger habitats, being largely limited to the upland areas and wetter parts of the Western Ghats, and include the Tiger Reserves of Periyar, Western GhatsPeriyar Kalakad-Mundathurai, Bandipur and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary.Kalakad-MundathuraiBandipur Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary The methodology used during the tiger census of 2008 extrapolates site-specific densities of tigers,
in the Shivaliks–Gangetic flood plain landscape there are six populations with an estimated population size of 259 to 335 individuals occupying 5,080 square kilometres (1,960 sq mi) of forested habitats, which are located in Rajaji and Corbett national parks, in the connected habitats of Dudhwa-Kheri- Pilibhit, in Suhelwa Tiger Reserve, in Sohagi Barwa Sanctuary and in Valmiki National Park;ShivaliksGangetic flood plainDudhwa-Kheri PilibhitSuhelwa Tiger ReserveSohagi Barwa SanctuaryValmiki National Park in the Central Indian highlands there are 17 populations with an estimated population size of 437 to 661 individuals occupying 48,610 square kilometres (18,770 sq mi) of forested habitats, which are located in the landscapes of Kanha-Pench, Satpura-Melghat, Sanjay-Palamau, Navegaon-Indravati; isolated populations are supported in the tiger reserves of Bandhavgarh, Tadoba, Simlipal and the national parks of Panna, Ranthambore–Kuno–Palpur–Madhav and Saranda ;Central Indian SatpuraMelghatSanjayPalamauNavegaon BandhavgarhTadobaRanthamboreKuno–PalpurMadhavSaranda
in the Eastern Ghats landscape there is a single population with an estimated population size of 49 to 57 individuals occupying 7,772 square kilometres (3,001 sq mi) of habitat in three separate forest blocks located in the Srivenkateshwara National Park, Nagarjunasagar Tiger Reserve and the adjacent proposed Gundla Brahmeshwara National Park, and forest patches in the tehsils of Kanigiri, Baduel, Udayagiri and Giddalur;Eastern GhatsSrivenkateshwara National Park Nagarjunasagar Tiger ReserveGundla Brahmeshwara National ParktehsilsKanigiriBaduelUdayagiriGiddalur
in the Western Ghats landscape there are seven populations with an estimated population size of 336 to 487 individuals occupying 21,435 square kilometres (8,276 sq mi) forest in three major landscape units;Western Ghats in the Brahmaputra flood plains and north- eastern hills tigers occupy 4,230 square kilometres (1,630 sq mi) in several patchy and fragmented forests;Brahmaputra
in the Indian Sundarbans tigers occupy about 1,586 square kilometres (612 sq mi) of mangrove forest.Sundarbans In May 2008, forest officials spotted 14 tiger cubs in Rajasthan's Ranthambore National Park.Rajasthan In June 2008, a tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska Tiger Reserve, where all tigers had fallen victim to poachers and human encroachments since 2005Sariska Tiger Reserve
Hunting and diet Tigers are carnivores. They prefer hunting large ungulates such as chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent also barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized prey species they frequently kill wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and Gray langur. Small prey species such as porcupines, hares and peafowl form a very small part in their diet. Due to the encroachment of humans into their habitat, they also prey on domestic livestock.carnivoresungulates chitalsambargaurbarasinghawater buffalonilgaiserowtakinwild boarhog deer muntjacGray langurporcupines harespeafowl In most cases, tigers approach their victim from the side or behind from as close a distance as possible and grasp the prey's throat to kill it. Then they drag the carcass into cover, occasionally over several hundred meters, to consume it. The nature of the tiger's hunting method and prey availability results in a "feast or famine" feeding style: they often consume 18–40 kilograms (40–88 lb) of meat at one time.
Reproduction and lifecycle Tiger with a cub in Bandhavgarh National ParkBandhavgarh National Park The tiger in India has no definite mating and birth seasons. Most young are born in December and April. Young have also been found in March, May, October and November. In the 1960s, certain aspects of tiger behaviour at Kanha National Park indicated that the peak of sexual activity was from November to about February, with some mating probably occurring throughout the year. Males reach maturity at 4–5 years of age, and females at 3– 4 years. A tigress comes into heat at intervals of about 3–9 weeks, and is receptive for 3–6 days. After a gestation period of 104–106 days, 1–4 cubs are born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick bush or in caves.
Newborn cubs weigh 780 to 1,600 g (1.7 to 3.5 lb) and they have a thick wooly fur that is shed after 3.5–5 months. Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth start to erupt at about 2–3 weeks after birth, and are slowly replaced by permanent dentition from 8.5–9.5 weeks of age onwards. They suckle for 3–6 months, and begin to eat small amounts of solid food at about 2 months of age. At this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take part in hunting at 5–6 months of age. At the age of 2–3 years, they slowly start to separate from the family group and become transient — looking out for an area, where they can establish their own territory. Young males move further away from their mother's territory than young females. Once the family group has split, the mother comes into heat again.