Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Environmental Sciences Interactions among Living Things Section 3."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1 Environmental Sciences Interactions among Living Things Section 3
Adaptation A characteristic that allows a species to live successfully in its environment fast sharp claws sharp teeth Protective Coveringcamouflagestinging tentacles
Why adapt? __________________ process in which changes made to a population enable organism to be better suited to their environment “Survival of the fittest” Those that possess traits that are most desirable will survive to pass on those traits to offspring Natural Selection
niche the way a species makes its living (its occupation or job)
Competition The struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
PREDATION An interaction in which one organism kills and eats another
Predator Prey The organism that does the killing The organism that is killed
REMEMBER: EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED ! A decrease in the prey population means some predators will starve. Fewer predators mean prey population will increase. Increase in prey means more food for predators. Predator population will increase until there is not enough food... and the cycle repeats itself.
Ways organisms interact __________________________ Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Live in close association with another kind of organism SYMBIOSIS
3 KINDS of SYMBIOSIS ______________________ Both organisms benefit ______________________ One organism benefits; Other is neither harmed nor helped _____________________ One organism benefits; Other is harmed in some way MUTUALISM COMMENSALISM PARASITISM
MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Birds eat parasites living on the hides of giraffes and rhinos while enjoying protection from predators. Groomed animals lose their pests.
MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Insects transfer pollen between plants as they gather nectar for food.
MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Clown fish gets protection from enemies by hiding out in poisonous sea anemones Sea anemone gets scraps of leftover food dropped by fish
COMMENSALISM “Good for me - Doesn’t bother you” Pilot fish receive scraps of food dropped by shark; Shark is neither harmed nor helped
COMMENSALISM “Good for me - Doesn’t bother you” Hermit crabs make homes in shells abandoned by snails; Snail is not harmed by crab
Parasitism Host The organism that is harmed Parasite The organism that benefits and harms another
PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Barnacles are crustaceans that attach to the surface of whales and feed on their skin and fluids; Whale is harmed
PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Tick feeds on dog’s blood; Dog has discomfort, can get diseases/infection from bite
PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Tapeworms absorb food by living inside host intestine; host is harmed