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Active Defense and Predator Specialization By: Jed and Damien.

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1 Active Defense and Predator Specialization By: Jed and Damien

2 What is Active Defense?  Active defense is a form of defense in motion, for example: running, jumping, attacking and evolution.  Some animals are armed with weapons like sharp teeth or a stinger.  Animals can also evolve to give themselves things like sharper teeth, longer teeth, thicker skin or longer legs.  The animals will evolve to use anything it can to protect itself.

3 Examples of Active Defense

4 Why do animals have Active Defense?  Animals, prey especially need it because their predators will always be hunting their species.  Active defense is use full because it allows the prey to either escape the predator’s attack or it allows them to escape their predator’s successfully.

5 Passive Defense – Camouflage  Defense due to the presence of a structural component that is already present in its body  Mimicry – the technique to imitate another creature  Camouflage – involving shape, colors, and patterning modification  Ex: Quills on a porcupine

6 Active Defense – examples  A male chameleon guards his territory fiercely against rival males and frightens them off by inflating his lungs which puffs up his body.  Rattle snakes have a rattle on the end of their tail that they use to scare away predators that would try to kill it, although it doesn’t work well on flying predators.

7 Predator Specialization

8 What is Predator Specialization?  Types of predators  -Generalist- Predators who hunt anything  -Specialist- Predators who specialize in one prey and evolve according to their prey and the environment

9 Examples of Predators  Generalist – Lions (impalas, buffalo, zebras, warthogs, etc…)  Specialist – Weasels (small rodents)

10 Generalist and Specialist plants  Being a generalist and specialist isn’t limited to the animal kingdom.  For example; some plants require very specific temperatures, soil conditions and light to grow like and survive like marijuana while others such as the cactus require very little water and don’t require very rich soil at all.

11 Predator specialization - Generalist  A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources  Omnivores are usually generalists, they are generalists because their diet consists of many things such as multiple plant species and multiple prey.

12 Predator Specialization - Specialist  A specialist species can only thrive in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.  Herbivores are often specialists, but herbivores that eat a large variety of different plants may be considered generalists.  A well-known specialist is the koala, almost the entire diet of the koala consists of eucalyptus leaves.

13 Evolutionary Arms Race  The predators and prey constantly evolve - Whenever prey’s defense gets improved (poison, run faster, etc. ) the predator must adapt to these changes so that the equilibrium is maintained.

14 Example of evolutionary arms race  A parasite and its host Dodo bird became extinct because it lacked the experience of constantly evolving to beat the invasive species (such as: crab eating macaques)

15 Female lions vs. Buffalo 

16 Bibliography   and-predator-specialization and-predator-specialization  cies cies  meleon.html meleon.html   buffalo-defense.htm buffalo-defense.htm  1600x1200.html 1600x1200.html  facts.html facts.html


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