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Amphibians: The First Terrestrial Vertebrates

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1 Amphibians: The First Terrestrial Vertebrates
Chapter 19 Mrs. LaLone

2 Tetrapod – “four-feet” First True tongue Highly glandular skin
Secretions aid in protection Prevents from drying out Ectothermic Excrete Ammonia or Urea

3 Feeding Habits Adult amphibians are Carnivores Larvae are herbivores
Use Jaws or tongue to seize prey Larvae are herbivores

4 Respiration Cutaneous Respiration – Pulmonary ventilation
gas exchange across skin Occurs on land or in water Requires a moist surface Pulmonary ventilation Occurs by buccal pump mechanism Muscles of mouth and pharynx create a positive pressure to force air into lungs

5 Nervous System 3 Subdivisions of Brain Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain
Olfactory centers regions that regulate color change & organ function Midbrain Contains optic tectum that processes sensory info Processes visual sensory information Initiates motor responses Hindbrain Motor coordination Regulates heart rate Orchestrates Respiration

6 Eyes Vision is one of the most important senses
Primarily sight feederse Respond to movements of their prey Except caecilians

7 3 Orders of Modern Amphibians
Order Caudata – “bears tail” Salamanders Order Gymnophiona – “naked like a snake” Caecilians Order Anura – “without tail” Frogs & Toads

8 Order Caudata – Salamanders
“Newts” Olfaction helps in prey detection Possess a tail throughout life Live in moist forest floor litter; caves Have aquatic larvae Some lay eggs on land Internal fertilization (spermatophore; female picks up)

9 Order Gymnophiona – Caecilians
Olfaction – helps in prey detection Blind Worm like Burrowers Internal fertilization

10 Order Anura – Frogs & Toads
Diverse diet - Bullfrogs will prey on small mammals, birds, other frogs Moist environments Adults lack tails External Fertilization Aquatic eggs and larvae (tadpoles) Undergo Metamorphosis (change from larva to adult) Hear with Tympanic Membrane 3 Chambered heart – 2 atria & 1 ventricle Frog vs Toad

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