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BIOLOGY IN ACTION Fall 2014 Semester Project. The Carbon Cycle “The Circle of Life” Brief introduction to the carbon cycle and what drives the carbon.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOLOGY IN ACTION Fall 2014 Semester Project. The Carbon Cycle “The Circle of Life” Brief introduction to the carbon cycle and what drives the carbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOLOGY IN ACTION Fall 2014 Semester Project

2 The Carbon Cycle “The Circle of Life” Brief introduction to the carbon cycle and what drives the carbon cycle Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Why do organisms need both processes

3 Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

4 Characteristics of Life All living things use energy

5 Organisms Use Energy – The Carbon Cycle Red-tailed Hawks go through the process of cellular respiration in the carbon cycle. What effects do Red-tailed Hawks have on the carbon cycle? – The amount of CO2 increases when: Equation – C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Expending energy while actively hunting prey Killing prey

6 Organisms Use Energy – Obtaining Energy How Red-tailed Hawks obtain energy – Prey: Voles, rabbits, mice, wood rats, snowshoe hares, jackrabbits, pheasants, bobwhite quail, snakes

7 Organisms Use Energy – Rising CO2 Levels What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on the Red-tailed Hawk’s macromolecules? – Carbohydrates –Increasing CO2 levels would increase production of photosynthesis, thereby increasing glucose production in autotrophs. That would lead to greater prey abundance because prey such as rabbits, voles, and mice are heterotrophs that eat autotrophs. The extra amount of glucose would allow Red-tailed Hawks to increase their glycogen capacity. With more short-term energy storage, their survival would also increase

8 Organisms Use Energy – Rising CO2 Levels Lipids – Increasing prey population due to increasing CO2 levels would give Red-tailed Hawks more production of waxes to help preen their feathers to keep cleaner and healthier. Also, with more fatty acids, their long-term storage would allow Red- tailed Hawks to become more efficient in hunting.

9 Organisms Use Energy – Rising CO2 Levels Proteins – Increasing CO2 levels would give rise to global warming, thereby increase global temperatures. All organisms, such as Red-tailed Hawks maintain homeostasis by keeping a constant internal temperature. Increasing internal temperature could denature specific enzymes that would stop the break down specific polysaccharides. If enzymes are unable to break down polysaccharides into their monosaccharide form, Red-tailed Hawks will unable extract energy from glucose.

10 Organisms Use Energy – Rising CO2 Levels – Nucleic Acids – Increasing CO2 levels could mutate or change the DNA code. If the DNA code is changed, that will in turn change the type of protein produced. That possible consequence could lead to the production of wrong proteins, thereby creating a deficiency of specific enzymes needed to break down specific polysaccharides and fail to extract energy from specific monosaccharides.

11 Characteristics of Life Living Things are Made of Organized Cells A Red-tailed Hawk Story

12 Cells - Nucleus Function: Contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. Regulates protein synthesis. Every day, I see the same Red-tailed Hawk perched on top of a tree overlooking the bean field. And, when the Red-tailed Hawk comes out, all species are fearful. It’s a type of fear that controls all the activities within the immediate environment. Analogy: Red-tailed Hawk

13 Cells – Endoplasmic Reticulum Function: Network of tubules and flattened sacs forming a continuous connection with the nuclear envelope. Site of many chemical reactions. The Red-tailed hawk is scanning the open rows of beans, acting as tunnels for any species that maybe naive and thinking they are safe. Analogy: Rows of bean fields

14 Cells - Cytoplasm Function: Semi-fluid material surrounding organelles, site of many cellular reactions No species is safe to the keen eye of the Red-tailed hawk. Any species that may be ground dwelling or flying in the sky is not safe within the open environment. Analogy: Ground and Sky

15 Cells – Plasma Membrane Function: Selectively permeable that regulates the movement of materials between the cell’s internal and external environments. Finally, the Red-tailed hawk takes flight, circling the open field boundary high in the sky. The Red-tailed hawk is searching for a meal that may thrive inside the boundary line, separating the bean field from the dense forest. Analogy: Open Field Boundary

16 Cells - Mitochondria Function: Site of cellular respiration converting sugar to ATP. The Red-tailed hawk is scanning the environment for any prey that may give it energy. Analogy: Prey

17 Cells - Chloroplast Function: Site of Photosynthesis This has been an especially great year for the hawk, because all the grasses, trees, plants, and even the algae have been successful in producing an abundance of food for herbivores. Analogy: All the grasses, trees, plants, and algae

18 Cells - Ribosomes Function: Site of protein synthesis It is due to this photosynthetic success that provides the parents of the rabbits, voles, and mice to enjoy the extra amount of glucose, enabling them to increase reproductive productivity, making more babies! Analogy: Parents of prey

19 Cells – Golgi Apparatus Function: Packaging organelle that gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. The Red-tailed hawk is not searching for newborn babies, but hunting adults who are packing on the pounds since birth, making them a plump delicious meal! Analogy: As babies increase weight and become adults

20 Function: Aid in organism’s movement. Finally, a fat rabbit catches the eye of the hawk. The Red- tailed hawk folds its wings in, creating a death defying movement towards the rabbit. Success! The Red-tailed Hawk killed the rabbit with its sharp talons and beak. Analogy: Wings of the Red-tailed Hawk Cells – Cilia / Flagella

21 Cells - Vacuoles Function: Temporary storage of water, waste, and nutrients. Because of the overabundance of prey, the hawk is able to store the rabbit in its nest for a future meal later in the day. Analogy: Nest and pond

22 Cells - Lysosomes Function: Organelle that contain digestive enzymes that break down waste, worn-out organelles, food, and engulf viruses After the hawk finishes eating the rabbit, the hawk discards the dead carcass out of the nest and onto the ground. The skin and bones of the rabbit has no further use for the hawk, and the decomposers take over to remove the left overs out of the environment. Analogy: Decomposers

23 Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus)

24 Characteristics of Life All living things use energy

25 Organisms Use Energy Monarch Butterflies go through the process of cellular respiration in the carbon cycle. What effects do Monarch butterflies have on the carbon cycle? – The amount of CO2 increases when: Equation – C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP

26 Organisms Use Energy How Monarch Butterflies obtain energy – Prey:

27 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on the Monarch Butterfly’s macromolecules? – Carbohydrates –

28 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on the Monarch Butterfly’s macromolecules? – Lipids –

29 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on the Monarch Butterfly’s macromolecules? – Proteins –

30 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on the Monarch Butterfly’s macromolecules? – Nucleic Acids –

31 Characteristics of Life Living Things are Made of Organized Cells A Monarch Butterfly Story

32 Cells - Nucleus Function: Contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. Regulates protein synthesis. Sentences: Analogy:

33 Cells – Plasma Membrane Function: Selectively permeable that regulates the movement of materials between the cell’s internal and external environments. Sentences: Analogy:

34 Cells - Ribosomes Function: Site of protein synthesis Sentences: Analogy:

35 Cells - Cytoplasm Function: Semi-fluid material surrounding organelles, site of many cellular reactions Sentences: Analogy:

36 Cells – Endoplasmic Reticulum Function: Network of tubules and flattened sacs forming a continuous connection with the nuclear envelope. Site of many chemical reactions. Sentences: Analogy:

37 Cells – Golgi Apparatus Function: Packaging organelle that gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. Sentences: Analogy:

38 Cells - Vacuoles Function: Temporary storage of water, waste, and nutrients. Sentences: Analogy:

39 Cells - Lysosomes Function: Organelle that contain digestive enzymes that break down waste, worn-out organelles, food, and engulf viruses Sentences: Analogy:

40 Cells - Mitochondria Function: Site of cellular respiration. Sentences: Analogy:

41 Cells - Chloroplast Function: Site of Photosynthesis Sentences: Analogy:

42 Function: Aid in organism’s movement. Sentences: Analogy: Cells – Cilia / Flagella

43 Soybean (Glycine max)

44 Characteristics of Life All living things use energy

45 Organisms Use Energy Soybeans go through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the carbon cycle. What effects do soybeans have on the carbon cycle? – The amount of CO2 increases when: Equation – C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP – The amount of CO2 decreases when: Equation – CO 2 + H 2 O + Sunlight  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2

46 Organisms Use Energy How soybeans obtain energy – Soybeans convert solar radiate energy into chemical energy such as glucose through the process of photosynthesis. – Soybeans then use the production of glucose for maintenance and growth through the process of cellular respiration.

47 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on soybean’s macromolecules? – Carbohydrates –

48 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on soybean’s macromolecules? – Lipids –

49 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on soybean’s macromolecules? – Proteins –

50 Organisms Use Energy What possible consequences do increasing global CO2 levels have on soybean’s macromolecules? – Nucleic Acids –

51 Characteristics of Life Living Things are Made of Organized Cells A Soybean Story

52 Cells - Nucleus Function: Contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. Regulates protein synthesis. Sentences: Analogy:

53 Cells – Plasma Membrane Function: Selectively permeable that regulates the movement of materials between the cell’s internal and external environments. Sentences: Analogy:

54 Cells - Ribosomes Function: Site of protein synthesis Sentences: Analogy:

55 Cells - Cytoplasm Function: Semi-fluid material surrounding organelles, site of many cellular reactions Sentences: Analogy:

56 Cells – Endoplasmic Reticulum Function: Network of tubules and flattened sacs forming a continuous connection with the nuclear envelope. Site of many chemical reactions. Sentences: Analogy:

57 Cells – Golgi Apparatus Function: Packaging organelle that gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. Sentences: Analogy:

58 Cells - Vacuoles Function: Temporary storage of water, waste, and nutrients. Sentences: Analogy:

59 Cells - Lysosomes Function: Organelle that contain digestive enzymes that break down waste, worn-out organelles, food, and engulf viruses Sentences: Analogy:

60 Cells - Mitochondria Function: Site of cellular respiration. Sentences: Analogy:

61 Cells - Chloroplast Function: Site of Photosynthesis Sentences: Analogy:

62 Function: Aid in organism’s movement. Sentences: Analogy: Cells – Cilia / Flagella

63 Non-Living Things What makes something, non-living? In order for something to be considered living, it must contain all six characteristics of life: – Made of organized cells

64 The Sun

65 Cumulonimbus Clouds

66 Marble

67 Methane

68 Chickenpox (varicella)

69 Fire


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