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Exploitation by Introduced Species. 28 29 Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) Introduced to Guam (mid-1940s) 31.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploitation by Introduced Species. 28 29 Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) Introduced to Guam (mid-1940s) 31."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploitation by Introduced Species

2 28 29 Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) Introduced to Guam (mid-1940s) 31

3 Myiagra freycineti (Guam flycatcher) Gallicolumba xanthonura White-throated ground-dove Zosterops conspicillatus ** Bridled white-eye Acrocephalus luscinia Nightingale reed-warbler Rhipidura rufifrons * Rufous fantail Ptilinopus roseicapilla Mariana fruit-dove Myzomela cardinalis Cardinal honeyeater Halcyon cinnamomina ** Micronesian kingfisher Nine of Eleven Native Forest Birds in Guam EXTIRPATED/EXTINCT 30

4 SUCCESS OF SPECIES INTRODUCED OUTSIDE OF NATURAL GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION No Coevolved Interspecific Competitors No Coevolved Herbivores No Coevolved Parasites No Coevolved Pathogens

5 Predator-Prey Dynamics

6 Sunspot Hypothesis (Elton 1924) What Controls Snowshoe Hare Population Fluctuations? Predator Hypotheses Food Supply/Quality Hypotheses Overpopulation Hypotheses

7 TEASING OUT THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS: CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT 27 Test for Effects of Predators, Plant Food Supply, Quality

8 ControlsSupplemental Food Fertilizer Electric Fence / Supplemental Food Electrical Fence Krebs et al YEAR STUDY TEASING OUT THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS: CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT

9 Fig in Molles 2006 TEASING OUT THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS: CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT

10 Underlying Processes: Predator – Prey Dynamics Alfred Lotka (1925) Vito Volterra (1926)

11 dN h /dt = r h N h – pN h N p Modeling Population Change: Host (= Prey) r h = p = N h = N p =

12 dN p /dt = c p N h N p -d p N p Modeling Population Change: Predator c p = N h = N p = d p =

13 Fig in Molles 2006

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15 2 Predator – Prey Oscillation in the Laboratory?

16 Fig in Molles 2006 Bean Weevil Parasitoid Wasp Utida 1957 Predator – Prey Oscillation in the Laboratory?

17 Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab (Paramecium – Didinium) G. Gause (1935) Predator: Didinium Prey: Paramecium

18 Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab (Paramecium – Didinium) Fig in Molles 2006 Experiment 1

19 PreyPredator Fig in Molles 2006 Trial 2 Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab: Refuges (Paramecium – Didinium) Add a Refuge: Sediment

20 Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab: Restock Predators (Paramecium – Didinium) Fig in Molles 2006 Prey Predator Trial 3 Restock the Predator

21 10 Predatory Mite Can Crawl Feeds on Six-Spotted Mite Six-Spotted Mite Feeds on Oranges Can Crawl or “Balloon” via Silk Strand Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab (Predatory Mite / Six-Spotted Mite)

22 Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab (Predatory Mite / Six-Spotted Mite) Fig in Cain et al. 2008

23 Huffaker (1958) Predator – Prey Relationships in the Lab: Refuges and Complexity (Predatory Mite / Six-Spotted Mite) Fig in Cain et al Additional Complexity Widely Spaced Oranges Intervening Vaseline Strips Posts Inserted on Some Oranges to Facilitate Ballooning

24 9

25 common%20pear%201%20Jun%2003%20Bingara%20web.jpg saltcedar-mountains-large.jpg 8 4D41-861A-81C9DEBD6022%7D/uploads/%7BC2C6F596-EB0D- 427F-852E-5840C1E97721%7D.JPG 9

26 _DFO2_l.jpg /short~eared~owl~607.jpg snowshoe-hare.jpg 19

27 Tannin.jpg xRFAuwO1RY/s400/Brown-tree-snake-(3).jpg

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